What affect did the ‘Fair Day Triangle’ theory have on the dispersion of McQuaid/McQuade families in Tyrone and Fermanagh?
This is a part three of a three part post on
what I refer to as ‘Fair Day Triangles’, an attempt at determining the size of
the foot print that our ancestors lived their lives in.
Part-I & Part II can be found at these links.
Parts I and II of this series gave you a look at the size of the
foot print my McQuaid family lived in and the reasons for their travels. As you
can see this changed with time. This post will show you where the
McQuaid’s (McQuade’s) settled at the time of the Tithe, 1823-1837. Or, how they
dispersed over the ‘Fair Day Triangles’.
A picture tells a thousand words, so I will let them
tell the story.
70% of all McQuaid/McQuade families, in County
Tyrone, lived within the 12 mile radius circle of Tummery. Dromore Parish,
County Tyrone at the time of the Tithe.
100% of all McQuaid/McQuade families, in County
Fermanagh, lived within the 12 mile radius circle of Tummery, Dromore Parish,
County Tyrone at the time of the Tithe.
The largest concentrations of McQuaid/McQuade
families were in Dromore and Kilskerry Parishes.
I have come across hundreds of McQuaid/McQuade families, from
Counties Tyrone and Fermanagh, living in the United States, Canada , Australia,
Scotland and England, in my search for family connections. They have left their
prints across the globe. There are message boards on the WEB dedicated to
finding McQuaid/McQuade families in Tyrone. Hopefully this series of posts will
help someone that is trying to retrace their family footsteps. The
McQuaid/McQuade families have left a print, a 12 mile radius print, in this
corner of Ireland.
Part-I & Part II can be found at these links.
Tuesday, March 8, 2016
This is a part two of a three part post on what I refer to as ‘Fair Day Triangles’, an attempt at determining the size of the foot print that our ancestors lived their lives in. Part-I & Part III can be found at these links.As stated in my previous post, a person could travel up to 12 miles, in one direction, conduct their business, and return home, in one day.
Reasons for travel could be as follows;
- Availability of roads and means of communication
- Legal affairs
- Medical needs
- Market and Fair days
- Civil registration of birth, marriage and death after 1864
One would travel with-in their parish for church. But this could also change over time. As an example my McQuaid’s were from Lisdoo, Kilskerry parish, they also leased land in Tummery, Dromore parish. They went to Magheralough Chapel (St. Macartrn’s) in Stranagomer, Kilskerry, 3.5 miles away. My Thomas McQuaid married Mary Ann Barrett, 4 Feb, 1856. She was from Tummerry, Dromore parish, only a field away. They were married in Dromore, Dromore parish, 5 miles away. On the same day Thomas’s sister Anna, married John O’Donnell from Tummery. They were married in Magherlough Chapel. I can see the precession walking across the field from Lisdoo to Tummerry, 5 miles to Dromore, Dromore parish, 5-6 miles to Stranagomer, Kilskerry parish, and 3.5 miles back to Tummery, where they all took up residence. Although, the train from Dromore to Trillick started in 1854, so maybe they splurged, and took the ride on that leg of the journey. They were lucky that they married in 1856 and not after 1864. No one had to walk the 5-6 miles from Stranagomer to Irvinestown, to provide information, for civil registration with the PLU, for Anna’s marriage. Or, 8.8 miles from Dromore to Omagh to register Thomas’s marriage.
Roads and means of communication changed over time as follows;
“The greater part of the road pattern was already in place in 1740. The main Enniskillen and Londonderry road originally passed through Tempo and over the mountains to Fintona and on to Omagh. In 1828 a new road was made to avoid the mountains that divided Fermanagh and Tyrone. It is a little longer than the original, but has the advantage of being level. From the Enniskillen-Iervinstown road a trunk route strikes out northeast along a lowland corridor by Ballinamallard, Trillick and Dromore, towards Omagh. This opened communication with Dromore and Trillick and would become the route for the railway in the 1850's.”
Taylor & Skinner: Maps of the Roads of Ireland Surveyed 1777, indicate that the road from from Omagh to Enniskillen, through Trilick and Dromore, did exist in 1777. The problem was that it was not wide enough for a large coach or car. Traffic was by foot, horse back or small cart. Thus the main route went over the mountains via Tempo, Fintona to Omagh.
‘By the 1830’s ‘Roads here were described as being quite good. The main road from Omagh to Enniskillen passed through Fintona, Trillick and Kilskeery and was in good repair, the road from Dromore to Trillick was just being made, while the roads from Trillick to Tempo and Fivemiletown were described as hilly and in great need of repair.’
This means that prior to 1828 Dromore and Trillick were isolated and the major route from the south and east, going north, went around them. That meant for people living in these areas, there was an advantage to going to market and fairs in Fintona, Omagh or Tempo. These towns were also Post Towns because the mail coach passed through. Drumquin is also on the road from Londonderry to Enniskillen via Omagh. Dromore had no weekly market at this time and the market in Trillick was local. The hiring fair in Trillick, in May and November, had a wide draw.
Places to conduct Legal affairs changed over time as follows;
Petty Sessions were formally established with legislation in 1827, although they had been in operation for centuries before that. By 1851, amid growing concerns about the fairness of some of the justices of the peace, the Petty Sessions (Ireland) Act sought to tighten up the rules. JPs were gradually replaced by trained and paid magistrates as the 19th century went on.
Covering both civil and criminal cases, the Petty Sessions’ brief was wide. Cases ranged from merchants who had not paid duty on their goods, to workers suing for unpaid wages. Farmers were fined for letting their cattle wander or for allowing their cart to be driven without their name painted on the side. Debts were collected and disputes settled. Public drunkenness was a common offence, as was assault and general rowdiness. Political feelings were often volatile and there are frequent cases all over the country of people charged with putting up seditious posters or leaflets. When the court had no jurisdiction to hear a case, when the case was of too serious a nature, JPs were obliged to process them, pass them on, to the Quarterly Sessions or the Assizes Court. In these cases, the accused was usually committed to the local gaol to await trial.
Petty Sessions were held in all of the Market/Fair towns listed in my previous post with the exception of Dromore and Drumquin.
Quarter sessions for Criminal acts. (Quarter sessions meant court was held four times per year).
- 1796, June 22, Proclam. Tyrone divided into two districts. 1. Omagh consisting of the baronies of Omagh & Strabane. With the towns of Omagh & Strabane alternating Quarter sessions for this district. 2. Dungannon consisting of the baronies of Dungannon and Upper Dungannon and Clogher. With the towns of Dungannon and Clogher alternating Quarter sessions for this district.
- 1837, Dec 22, Proclam. Dividing the County of Tyrone and
appointing court towns. Amended the Act of 1796 and set FORTH as follows, making
1. Dungannon, consisting of the barony of Dungannon, held in the town of Dungannon
2. Clogher, consisting of the barony of Clogher. Held in th town of Clogher
3. Omagh, consisting of the barony of Omagh and so much of the parishes of Cappagh and Termonmagaguirk as are situated in the barony of Stabane, save and except, however, so much of the said barony of Omagh in the parish of Termonamongan and such parish or portion of land called the Skirts of Urney and Skirts of Ardstraw. Held in the town of Omagh.
4. Strabane, consisting of the barony of Strabane and so much of the barony of Omagh in the parish of Termonamongan and such parish or portion of land called the Skirts of Urney and Skirts of Ardstraw, save and except, however, so much of the said barony of Strabane in the parishes of Cappagh and Termonmagaguirk as are situated in the barony of Srtabane. Held in the town of Strabane.
- 1864. Oct 4, Proclam. Consolidating Districts of Omagh and
Strabane into district of Omagh and appointing Court Town.
Shifts the Parish of Bodoney Lower from Strabane to Omagh.
- 1876, Oct 4, Proclam. Transferring all criminal business
(except appeals from Petty Sessions) from Clogher and Stabane to
Transfers all sessions from Strabane and Clogher to Omagh, except appeals from Petty Sessions.
The Assizes had jurisdiction outside Dublin over the most serious criminal offenses, such as treason and murder. Persons accused of these crimes would first come before the Petty Sessions, where a justice of the peace or resident magistrate would decide if there was sufficient evidence to justify a trial. If such evidence existed, the magistrate would issue a bill of indictment and refer to matter to a Grand Jury, which would decide if the bill was correct and supported by evidence, issuing an indictment.
Omagh, for Co. Tyrone and Enniskillen, for Co, Fermanagh, held courts Assizes.
Places to address medical needs were as follows.
Between 1821 and 1837, all of the market towns listed in my first post were listed as having a dispensary. The county Infirmary was in Omagh for Tyrone and Enniskillen for County Fermanagh.
In 1834 the Tyrone county Infirmary was located in the town of Omagh. In 1833 there were 234 patients. The prevailing diseases were scrofula (tuberculosis), lues veneria (syphilis), ulcers, and accidents.
The Omagh Poor Law Union was formally declared on 9 May, 1839. The workhouse was opened in 1841. During the famine the whole workhouse was turned over to a Fever Hospital. A purpose-built fever hospital was subsequently erected to the north of the workhouse.
The Lowtherstown (Irvinestown) Poor law Union was formally declared on 14 September, 1840. The workhouse opened in 1844. During the famine, in the mid-1840’s, a 40 bed fever hospital was erected to the north of the workhouse.
The Enniskillen Poor Law Union was formally declared on 10 August, 1840. The workhouse opened in 1844. During the famine, a hired house and sheds were appropriated to accommodate 120 fever patients. A fever hospital was erected at the south of the workhouse and opened in October 1849.
In 1853 The County Tyrone Lunatic Asylum was opened in Omagh.
Markets and Fair Days
Markets and Fairs were held as listed in my last post. Note the locations of Fairs that specialized in Livestock and Linen.
The following is from; ‘The Little Book of Tyrone’, by Cathal Coyle
“Hiring Fairs also took place and Tyrone was a county that was strongly associated with the practice. Prospective employees offered themselves for work on farms and household duties to farmers for the agricultural season. Their treatment varied from farm to farm, and when the annual contract expired, the fair was the meeting place. It was Strabane that hosted the biggest hiring fair in Tyrone. As with most towns, the main fairs lasted two days and were held in May and November. Strabane’s fair served not only the immediate area but a wider area stretching from West Donegal to Cavan and Monaghan.
Some Tyrone hiring fairs dated back as far as the seventeenth century, including those at Trillick, Killeter and Drumquin. Many of the people hired came from the west coast of Donegal.”
This reminds me of an old story handed down by my 3rd cousins mother, a former resident of Tummery, Dromore parish. Tummery is divided into two sections, Tummery Gallagher and Tummery Teague. My family has a Tyrone Gallagher line. When asked why there are so many Gallagher families in the area, she would give the following reply. “Many years ago five Gallagher brothers came over the hill from Donegal. Their purpose was to take as a wife the daughter of a well to-do farmer.” I can see them hiring themselves out to farmers that had daughters of the right age. By the end of the work season they were well on the way to a marriage agreement. Parcels of land were given as a dowry by the farmers they worked for.
This explains why I have DNA connections to Gallagher lines from Donegal, while not having any known connection to that county. The 1855 Encumbered Estates Court Sales for Tummery, lists the three lives leases given in 1805. At that time leases were given to nine Gallagher’s. If the story is true it took place in the seventeen hundreds.
From Francis Kelly, ‘The Old Ballad of the Killeter Fair’
- Attention pay, you country folk, a wee while if you please.
- I’ll sing to you a verse or two, to amuse you at my ease.
- It’s all about a handsome girl, her equal would be rare,
- And the first place that I met her was in Killeter Fair.
- Her eyes they shone like diamonds,
- and her cheeks bloomed like the rose, .
- She is my first, my only love, no matter where she goes.
- She stole my heart completely, boys, the truth I must declare,
- And the first place that I met her was in Killeter Fair.
Civil Registration of 1864
The Market Towns on the Fair Day Triangle Map fall in three Poor Law Unions. But the 12 mile radius circles of these Market Towns fall within five Poor Law Unions.
- Fintona, Donacavey parish is in the Omagh PLU, but the southern end of the parish is in the Clogher PLU.
- Dromre, Dromore Parish is in the Omagh PLU, but the south western part of the parish is in the Irvinestown Fermanagh PLU.
- Trillick, Kilskerry Parish is in the Irvinestown, Fermanagh PLU, but the eastern part of the parish is in the Enniskillen, Fermanagh PLU
- Omagh, Drumragh Parish is in the OMAGH PLU.
- Ievinestown, Derryvullen parish, Fermanagh is in the Irvinestown PLU
- Drumquin, East Longfield Parish is in the OMAGH PLU and West Longfield is in Castlederg PLU
When Civil Registration of birth, marriage and death became mandatory, in 1864, the registration took place at the PLU the event took place in. Most people were born and died at home and were married in a church. For my family living in Tummery, Dromore parish, Tyrone, a birth or death, at home, was reported to the PLU in Irvinestown, county Fermanagh. A marriage at the parish church in Dromore, Dromore parish, was reported to the PLU in Omagh, Drumragh Parish, county Tyrone. If a person from Tummery going to the Drumquin Fair was trampled by a horse and died, on the west side of the town, the death had to be reported at the Castlederg PLU. If it happened on the east side of town, it was reported to the PLU in Omagh. If you cannot find a civil death record, listed under the PLU for the townland your ancestor lived in, maybe he did not die at home. Note that the dispensaries were in the market towns, the county infirmaries were in Omagh or Enniskillen and fever hospitals were at the work houses. They were most likely in a different PLU from where the person lived.
The coming of the Railway
The coming of the ‘Londonderry & Enniskillen Railway’ in the 1850’s had a great affect on travel within the Fair Day Triangle Map. The railway followed the level route of the road built in 1828, Omagh, Fintona, Dromore, Trillick and Enniskillen. The railway by-passed the mountain road to Fivemiletown and Clogher. To get to these places one had to take the railway to Enniskillen and transfer east. The coming of livestock cars and and easy means of transport for large buyers from the east would drive those selling cattle, pigs and linen to the fairs along the railway, namely Trillick, Fintona and Omagh.
In the 2nd half of the 19th century, the railway greatly increased the 12 mile radius circle that the Fair day Triangle map is based on. The railway reached Newtownstewat and Omagh in 1852, Fintona in 1853 and Dromore, Trillick, Irvinestown and Enniskillen in 1854.
I can envision the procession in May of 1880, when Thomas McQuaid, his wife Mary Barrett and nine children, age 5-24, walked from Tummery to Dromore Road station to catch the train to Londonderry (Derry). The 1 hr 50 min. ride would take them to the ship leaving for America. What was going through their head as they left a life of living in a 12 mile radius circle and headed out on a 3,000+ mile trip across the sea?
Tuesday, March 1, 2016
This is a part one of a three part post on what I refer to as ‘Fair Day Triangles’, an attempt at determining the size of the foot print that our ancestors lived their lives in. Part-II & Part III can be found at these links.Have you ever researched your family history and did not consider a finding because the family in question did not live in the same townland or parish as your known family? Have you run into a brick wall when researching the family of the bride, because there is no family by that name in the townland or parish? Have you ever wondered how far afield your ancestor would have traveled to meet their future spouse, or where and how they met?
To answer these questions we need to know several things.
- Where did they go for church?
- Where and when did they go for Market and Fair days?
- Where did they go for court and legal affairs?
- What was the means of transportation at the time and how fast could they travel? Could they make it to their destination and back, with time to conduct business, in one day?
- Were there roads to and from their destination?
This post will attempt to answer these questions for my ancestors living in Tummery, Dromore Parish, County Tyrone.
Means of TransportIn the 18th & 19th century, the means of transportation for the farmer in Tyrone was walking or by horse.
- A person walking will average 3-4 miles per hour.
- A person, on foot, leading a horse, will average 3-4 miles per hour.
- A horse with person riding, with or without cart, will average 5 to 8 miles per hour at a slow trot.
With these limitations, a person could travel up to 12 miles, each way, and have time to conduct business, in one day.
The following illustration shows the area within a 12 mile radius of Tummery, Dromre Parish Tyrone.
As can be seen Tummery is 5 miles from the town of Dromore, where the Parish church is located. My family most likely went to Market in any of the towns in green or yellow.
Several questions arise when looking at the map.
- When going to any of these market towns I could meet people coming from a 12 mile radius of the town, not just the 12 mile radius of Tummery. What area did this cover?
- What days were the Markets and Fairs conducted in each town? Did they compete or adjust their schedules for the biggest draw? Did the markets and Fairs sell the same things or did one have to go to different places to sell cattle, pigs or flax?
- What towns held court and had dispensaries?
This opens up the possibility of meeting people from most of western Tyrone, County Fermanagh and part of County Donegal. Also note that the towns coordinated the days of the week for markets and days of the month for fairs. This allowed the town to draw the largest crowds. Also note that Dromore did not have a weekly market. This means my family from Tummery, Dromore Parish, most likely went to Trillick, Irvinestown or Drumquin for market.
The illustration above sheds light on DNA matches that I have received.
- My 3rd GGrand parents were Denis Barrett and Margaret Gallagher. Denis is on the 1834 Tithe, in Tummery. He is also listed, on the same lot, in 1855 when the townland was sold and listed on the ‘Encumbered Estates Court Sales’. This document also states that the lot he leases in 1855 was originally given in a ‘3 lives’ lease to Bryan Gallagher in 1805. I assume that the Margaret Gallagher, that Denis married, was the daughter of this Bryan, but this is not proven. The question arises as to where Denis Barrett came from between 1805 and 1834 and where did he meet Miss Gallagher? The Gallagher's are from Tummery, Dromore, but there is no other Barrett in Dromore Parish on the Tithe. My DNA match is to a Barrett family from Aughadulla, Drumragh Parish, Tyrone. Aughadulla townland is close to Dumquin and Omagh, both within my Tummerry, 12 mile, ‘Fair Day Triangle’ area.
- I have two DNA matches to the Moss family line. One from Garvagh townland in Termonamongan Parish, Tyrone (Just north of Killeter). This goes back to the late 18th century, and the other from Fintona, Donacavey Parish, Tyrone, which goes back to the mid 19th century. There is no Moss listed on the 1827 Donacavey or Dromore 1834 Tithe, but many on the 1828 Termonamongan Tithe. Note that Killitter, Tummery and Fintona are well within the Drumquin 12 mile radius circle.
The following is a listing of markets and fairs by town, from ‘A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837’ & ‘Ordnance Survey Memoirs Co. Tyrone 1821, 1823,1831-36’.
FINTONA, a post-town, in the parish of DONAGHCAVEY, barony of CLOGHER, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 7 miles (S.) from Omagh
The market is on Friday, and is well supplied with all kinds of provisions; and large quantities of brown linens are sold every alternate Friday to the bleachers, who attend from a great distance. A fair is held on the 22nd of every month, which is large and well attended. Petty sessions are held on the second Tuesday in each month; and a court leet and baron for the manor of Castlemaine once a month, for the recovery of debts under 40s. There is a dispensary.
DROMORE, a parish, in the barony of OMAGH, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 8 miles (S. W.) from Omagh, on the road from that place to Enniskillen.
Is a constabulary police station, and has a penny post to Omagh, and a dispensary. Fairs are held for farming stock on Feb. 1st, March 17th, Easter-Monday, Whit-Monday, May 1st, June 24th, Aug. 1st, Sept. 29th, Nov. 1st and 26th, and Dec. 26th. No weekly Market Day at this point in time.
TRILLICK, a market-town, in the parish of KILSKERRY, barony of OMAGH, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 9 miles (N. by E.) from Enniskillen, on the road to Omagh, to both which places it has a penny post.
In which a market is held every Tuesday, chiefly for butter and provisions; and there is a fair on the 14th of every month, including a Hiring Fair. This is a constabulary police station; petty sessions are held on alternate Mondays; and courts leet and baron every three weeks, for the recovery of debts under 50s. There is a dispensary.
OMAGH, an assize, market and post-town, partly in the parish of CAPPAGH, but chiefly in that of DRUMRAGH, barony of OMAGH, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 26 ¼ miles (S. E.) from Londonderry.
The market, held on Saturday, is well supplied with provisions, and on alternate Saturdays brown linens are exposed for sale: a market-house was built in 1830, in which grain and vegetables are sold, and a very convenient range of shambles was opened in 1834. Fairs are held on the first Saturday of every month for all kinds of cattle. There is a dispensary and County Infirmary. The assizes for the county are held here; as are the quarter sessions for the baronies of Omagh and Strabane, alternately with the town of Strabane. A court baron is also held every third Thursday for the manor of Audleston, at which the seneschal of the lord of the manor presides: debts to the amount of £4 are recoverable in it.
IRVINESTOWN, or LOWTHERSTOWN, a market and post-town, in that part of the parish of DERRYVULLEN which is in the barony of LURG, county of FERMANAGH, and province of ULSTER, 7 ¾ miles (N. W.) from Enniskillen.
It has a dispensary, a constabulary police station, and petty sessions are held on alternate Wednesdays. The market is on Wednesday, and fairs are held on the 8th of each month and on the 12th of April.
DRUMQUIN, a market-town, partly in the parish of EAST LONGFIELD and WEST LONGFIELD, barony of OMAGH, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 7 miles (W.N.W.) from Omagh, on the river Roe, and on the nearest road from Londonderry to Enniskillen. There is a daily penny post to Omagh. The market, on Thursday, is well supplied with provisions and yarn; and fairs are held on Jan. 17th, March 21st, May 2nd, June 9th, Aug. 15th, Sept. 17th, Nov. 9th, and Dec. 12th, for general farming stock: those held in March and June are large and well attended. Quarterly cattle fairs, to which English dealers resort, are the principal means of circulating money. Here are a meeting- house for Presbyterians, in connection with the Synod of Ulster, a large male and female school, and a dispensary.
ENNISKILLEN, a borough and market-town, and a parish, partly in the barony of MAGHERABOY, but chiefly in that of TYRKENNEDY, county of FERMANAGH, (of which it is the chief town), and province of ULSTER, 21 ½ miles (S. E.) from Ballyshannon, and 80 ½ (N. N. W.) from Dublin. The patent granted to William Cole, in 1612, authorized the holding of a market on Thursdays, and a fair on Lammas-day, with tolls; and in 1813 a patent was granted to the Earl of Enniskillen for holding fairs on the 10th of each month, except March, May, and August. Besides the general market on Thursdays, a butter market is held on Tuesdays. A butter and grain market have been built on land belonging to the Earl, at an expense of upwards of £900; there is another market-house under the town-hall, also a pig market; and convenient shambles have been erected at an expense of £750, which was advanced by the Earl to the corporation. The borough court, held every Thursday, has jurisdiction to the amount of £3. 6. 8. The assizes for the county and quarter sessions of the peace are held in the county court-house, which is a plain building near the eastern bridge. There is a dispensary and County Infirmary.
What were the condition of the roads between Market Towns and how were they maintained?From; The Industrial Archaeology of Northern Ireland
by W.A. McCutcheon
Director, Ulster Museum, Belfast
Road travel and traffic in the stage coach era, 1740-1850. p16
’It would appear that in Ireland the 17th century, and the early years of the 18th, were characterized by a general absence of wheeled vehicles, on a fairly primitive road network. Those people who did have occasion to move about the country walked or rode horseback, whilst goods were conveyed by pack-horse. Gradually the statutory labor provided by the parishes for six days in each year began to effect improvement in the overall condition of Ulster roads but not on sufficiently wide a front as to stimulate any immediate increase in the use of wheeled vehicles. Right through the 18th century horseback remained the most popular method of travel. By the beginning of the 19th century the native car popular with farmers in remote areas had two small solid wheels fixed to an axle and was a simple advance from the older slide car or slipe.
‘It was noted that twenty years ago (1780) very few wheel cars were to be met with, except in the neighborhood of principal towns such as Dungannon, Omagh and Strabane, now every farmer of any note is possessed on one, though in many situations it can never be applied so usefully as the common slide car. Frequently the wheel cart is on no more use than that of occasionally going to market or fairs. Slide cars cost 3s 9d to 5s 5d and wheel cars from four to six quineas.
Co. Fermanagh, The greater part of the road pattern was already in place in 1740. The main Enniskillen and Londonderry road originally passed through Tempo and over the mountains to Fintona and on to Omagh. In 1828 a new road was made to avoid the mountains that divided Fermanagh and Tyrone. It is a little longer than the original, but has the advantage of being level. From the Enniskillen-Iervinstown road a trunk route strikes out northeast along a lowland corridor by Ballinamallard, Trillick and Dromore, towards Omagh. This opened communication with Dromore and Trillick and would become the route for the railway in the 1850's.’
‘In 1613 an act was passed in the Irish parliament which made Ireland independent of Britain in the matter of road making. During the century and a half following the original enactment of 1613 the maintenance of roads in Ireland was the responsibility of the parish, operating a system of direct, statutory labor. The Act of 1613 required parishes to maintain those roads within their boundaries which served the principal market towns, using the direct labor resources available in the parish, as decreed and marshaled by directors and overseers, for a MINIMUM of six days within the period from Easter to Midsummer Day. The more substantial parishioners - those occupying a plough land (100 acres) or anyone owning a plough - were required to contribute a cart and horse, and four men. Other householders and tenants had to attend in person and where any of these did not have the tools necessary for road work the justices of the peace could impose a levy of 2 pounds on the parish for their purchase. This continued to be the chief means of repairing the roads of Ireland for one hundred and fifty years (1613-1765) and though amending acts were passed, statutory six day labor remained basically unaltered. Towards the end of the period of parochial interest it became obvious that a method of road repair originating in a subsistence economy was unable to cope with the changing economic circumstances of the mid 18th century. A system of road repair by Presentment gained rapidly in importance as the 18th century progressed and the older form of parochial organization became more and more an anachronism, eventually giving rise to civil unrest throughout the west of Ulster in the 'Oakboy' demonstrations of 1763. In 1765 the long standing system of six day labor was abolished though in the north of Ireland the activities of the parishes in road repair did not end. The Act of 1765 marked the end of the use of direct labor on the repair of major roads and also recognized the construction of new lines of roads, extending across a number of parishes. Direct, unpaid labor was no longer employed, rather, the money collected throughout the parish, from occupiers of land, at a penny or two pence per acre, was now used to employ paid labor under the direction of a wage earning overseer. New roads had to be no less then 14 ft graveled and 30 ft between drains and fences. This freed laborers and tradesmen from the requirement of 6 day statutory labor and put the whole burden on those who owned or leased land. The act of 1765 had laid down that presentments for road works should be levied on the barony within which the work lay, those for bridge works on the county-at-large. In 1805 the presentment expenditures for Co. Tyrone were 17,491 pounds, in 1845 it had grown to 37,343 pounds. The small farmer now paid the Presentment (road) tax covering the parish, barony and county levels, Tithe to the Church of Ireland or Poor Law rates, Small Dues to the Church of Ireland for each Marriage, Baptism and Funeral, whether or not it occurred in their own church, The Hearth tax, The Window tax, Fees to use and sell at Market,charges of the weigh master, Excise tax on Mills, Kilns, distilleries, maltsters… ect, on top of the rent on their land and mandatory days of labor to the lease holder as set forth in their lease.’
‘Roads here were described as being quite good in the 1830s. The main road from Omagh to Enniskillen passed through Fintona, Trillick and Kilskeery and was in good repair, the road from Dromore to Trillick was just being made, while the roads from Trillick to Tempo and Fivemiletown were described as hilly and in great need of repair. There were two public conveyances serving Trillick, the Rover and the Tallyho. Each was drawn by 2 horses, the first a sort of caravan or stage-coach and the second a double outside jaunting car. The conveyances left Omagh each morning at 5.30 a.m., arrived in Trillick around 9 a.m., then on to Enniskillen, arriving back here at 5 p.m. and continuing on to Omagh.’
Taylor & Skinner: Maps of the Roads of Ireland Surveyed 1777