Tuesday, January 16, 2018

The Thomas McQuaid Family of Tummery, Dromore Parish, County Tyrone

To find your Ancestors in Ireland, you need to follow the land. Using only records found online, I was able to trace my Dromore Parish, County Tyrone ancestors from 1805-1929. This post is dual purposed, it will explain how to use on-line Irish Land records and explore my McQuaid’s and the families that they married into. My Great Grandfather, Thomas John McQuaid was born in Tummery, Dromore Parish, County Tyrone in 1871. He came to America, with his family in 1880. Family lines from Tummery include McQuaid, Barrett, Gallagher, Teague, McNabb, O’Donnell and McMahon. Here is their story, told by the land.

TUMMERY

An t-Iomaire: The ridge. OSNB; TNCT; Possibly a boundary ridge. Old-timers pronounce it as “Chimmery”. Timory (1609, 1654); Tumory (1666); Tummery (1834); The eastern part of this townland was known as “Tummery Teague” and the western part, “Tummery Gallagher”. Other names know here are, Drumbrack (Druim breac): the speckled drumlin, and Barnatomog (Ba’rr na dtomo’g): top of the bushes. “The Long Shot” is the name of a field on James O’Neill’s land.

Tummery Teague OSM-1834: Houses 37; Inhabitants 164; Arable acres 210; bog 30
Tummery Gallagher OSM-1834: Houses 35; Inhabitants 210; Arable acres 227; bog 50


Tummery (total)
- Hearth Tax 1666: 3 tax payers/Hearths
- Leases per Landed Estates Court 1805: 38 for 3 lives, 4 yr to yr, plus Bog
- OSM-1834: Houses 72; Inhabitants 374; Arable acres 437; bog 80
- Tithe Applotment 1834: 66 agricultural holdings over one acre
- Census 1841: 87 Houses; Inhabitants 479
- Census 1851: 73 Houses; Inhabitants 329
- Leases per Landed Estates Sale 1855: 38 for 3 lives, 4 yr to yr, plus Bog
- Leases per Griffith’s Valuation 1860: 63
- Census 1861: 74 Houses; Inhabitants 343
- Census 1871: 61 Houses; Inhabitants 315
- Census 1881: 47 Houses; Inhabitants 264
- Census 1891: 41 Houses; Inhabitants 209
- Census 1901: 38 Houses; Inhabitants 139
- Census 1911: 31 Houses; Inhabitants 122


Note 1: On the Ordnance Survey Memoirs and the 1834 Tithe Applotment, acres were “Irish or Plantation acres”, not English statute acres. The Ordnance Survey maps used the English statute acre measurement. The English statute acre is also used on the 1841, and later, census and the Griffith’s Valuation of 1860. The Irish acre is 1.62 times larger than the English statute acre. The difference between the Irish acre and the statute acre arises from the fact that the Irish mile is 14⁄11 miles (1.273 miles (2.049 km)). Irish Acres X 1.62 = English Standard Acres

Note 2: Area is in acres - roods - perches
1. Acre: Originally, the amount plowed by a yoke of oxen in a day, and hence very variable. Legally, the area of a piece 40 poles long by 4 broad; that is 160 square rods (43,560 square feet).
2. Rood: one-fourth of an acre; or 40 square rods; 10,890 square feet
3. Perch: one rod; 5.5 yards; 16.5 feet. One square perch equals 1 square rod or 272.25 square feet


Note 3: ALL of the Land Records used their own method of numbering the Lots. The only way to compare is to use the groups of Family and Given names.

Encumbered Estates Court Rentals for Tummery.


The Landed Estates Court is also known as the Encumbered Estates Court and the Land Judges Court. It was set up to deal with land whose owners were either insolvent or otherwise without the resources needed to properly manage their estates. The Court sold off around 8000 estates. The sales took place between 1849 and 1875. - See more at: http://www.irish-genealogy-toolkit.com/landed-estates-court-rentals.html#sthash.ENDkPCCB.dpuf

The sale of ALL lands in Tummery was posted in 1855, before the Griffith's valuation. It included a list of people leasing lots at that time AND a list of any ACTIVE 3 Lives Leases for each lot. These 3 Life Leases were given in 1805 for Tummery.  


Gale Days were the 1st of May & 1st of Nov; ie. ALL males in the family are to provide manual labor to the Landlord on these days.  Also, note that ALL males had to provide 6 days of labor each year to the County for maintenance of roads & bridges.

Note that the 1805 leases were given by George Gledstanes, Sr and George Gledstance, Jr. The owner at the time of the 1855 Encumbered Estate Sale was Richard Donovan Speer. These names can be useful when searching estate documents.

The Encumbered Estates Court Rentals were originally available only at the National Archives of Ireland in Dublin and PRONI in Belfast, they were launched online by FindMyPast in May 2011.
Link to FindMyPast's Landed estate's court rentals collection.
Link to GOOGLE Drive folder with 1855 Tummery Landed Estates Court Rental.

Tummery Encumbered Estates Court Sales 1855






         
There are 16 pages to the Tummery Encumbered Estates Sales package, including maps showing the placement of each lot leased in 1805. By comparing these maps to the OS maps used with the 1860 Griffith’s Valuation we can determine how the lot #’s coincided with each other. The Dromore Parish Tithe Applotment was taken in 1834. The lot numbers on the Tithe do not line up with 1860 Griffith's Valuation. By comparing names on the Tithe to those holding the lease at the time of the 1855 Encumbered Estates Sales and the names of those given the 1805 leases, we can determine how the lots match the Tithe. From 1860 through 1929 we can use the ‘Griffith’s Revision books’ to determine who these lots passed to. We can also use the 1901 and 1911 census,’House and Building Return (Form B10)’, right column, which gives the name of the person holding the lease or owning the lot, to match the lot number in the Griffith’s Revision books that include those years.   

This means we can determine the names of the individuals holding each lot in Tummery from 1805 to 1929 and who the lots passed to over time. The date of land passing between people gives a hint as to the date of a death or emigration.

For the purpose of this post, it would be too tedious to track all of the leases in Tummery through the years. I will give a detailed example of my family lines. The method can be used to track others if you wish.

My McQuaid family of Tummery:


Thomas McQuaid born abt 1770 was named, with two brothers, holding a three lives lease in Corbally Fergus, now known as Knocknahorn, in 1796. He married Rose Teague of Tummery, born abt 1770. They had at least three children between 1800 and 1813. By the 1826 Kilskerry Tithe Thomas was dead and Rose and family were living in Lisdoo, a field away from Tummery. Their son Thomas born abt 1805 married Mary McCourt abt 1833 and had their children in Lisdoo. Thomas also rented land to farm in Tummery. Thomas’s sister Brigid born abt 1813 married Bernard McNabb of Tummery, abt 1840. Thomas B1805 had a son Thomas B1837, and two daughters Catherine Ellen B1833 Anne B1836. Thomas B1837 married Mary Ann Barrett B1835, of Tummery. Her father was Denis Barrett and mother Margaret Gallagher. Anne B1836 married John O’Donnell born Abt 1823, of Tummery. Brother and sister, Thomas B1837 and Anne B1836 were married on the same day, 4 Feb 1856. Anne in Kilskerry because she was living in Lisdoo and Thomas in Dromore because Mary Barrett was from Tummery. Catherine Ellen B1833 Married John McMahon, in Kilskerry, in 1855. John was the son of Patrick McMahon of Tummery.  Thomas B1837 and family left Tummery for America in 1880. Some of the McNabbs, Barretts, McMahon’s and O’Donnell’s stayed in Tummery. 
Let us see what the land can tell us about my McQuaid’, Barret’s, McNabb’s, O’Donnell’s, McMahon’s and Gallagher’s of Tummery.

1805; Encumbered Estates 3 Life leases Tummery 1805, as stated in 1855

Parcel 3, Lot-1; 32A 0R 0P  Lease dated 1st June, 1805, George Gledstance, senior and George Gledstance, junior, to Patrick McMahon, Bryan McMahon and Owen Keenan, for the life of Michael Gallagher, now dead,of Henry Osburne, then age 6 years, and John M’Cusker, then aged 10 years, or 31 years from 1st May, 1805, at the yearly rent of 22 pounds 1s 10d with 12d in the pound Agent’s fees, late currency. This rent has been temporarily abated to 19 pounds 8s 8d. The contents in the lease are 16a 3r 17p Plantation measure. Henry Osburne has emigrated to Australia. By endorsement on the lease, the rent was abated by 13s 6d.

Parcel 23, 23a, 23b, Lot-4; 21A 3R 10P Lease dated 1st June, 1805, George Gledstance, senior and George Gledstance, junior, to Bryan Gallagher, for the life of Michael Gallagher, now dead,of Henry Osburne, then age 6 years, and John M’Cusker, then aged 10 years, or 31 years from 1st May, 1805, at the yearly rent of 11 pounds 2s with 1s in the pound Receiver’s fees, late currency. The contents in the lease are 9a. 3r. Plantation measure. Henry Osburne has emigrated to Australia. 


Parcel 27, Lot-4; 8A 3R 20P Lease dated 1st June, 1805, George Gledstance, senior and George Gledstance, junior, to Francis McNabb, for the life of Michael Gallagher, now dead,of Henry Osburne, then age 6 years, and John M’Cusker, then aged 10 years, or 31 years from 1st May, 1805, at the yearly rent of 7 pounds 7s 6d with 1s in the pound Receiver’s fees, late currency. This rent has been temporarily abated to 6 pounds 10s. The contents in the lease are 5a Plantation measure. Henry Osburne has emigrated to Australia.


Parcel 37, Lot-3; 12A 1R 0P Lease dated 1st June, 1805, George Gledstance, senior and George Gledstance, junior, to James O’Donnell, for the life of Michael Gallagher, now dead,of Henry Osburne, then age 6 years, and John M’Cusker, then aged 10 years, or 31 years from 1st May, 1805, at the yearly rent of 8 pounds 6s 6d with 12d in the pound Receiver’s fees, late currency. This rent has been temporarily abated to 6 pounds 8s 4d. The contents in the lease are 5a 3r 1p Plantation measure. Henry Osburne has emigrated to Australia.


There are NO McQuaid’s or Barrets in Tummery, with 3 Life Leases, in 1805 per the Encumbered Estate Sales

1834; Dromore Parish Tithe Applotment Book Index 1834 

PRONI FIN5A/114/1

This is Denis Barrett born abt 1810, husband to Margaret Gallagher, most likely the daughter of Bryan Gallagher. They hold Bryan Gallagher’s active,1805, 3 lives lease on Parcel 23,23ab in 1855, on the Encumbered Estate Sales listing.
Barrett     Denis     Tumery

This is Bryan Gallagher that holds the 3 Lives Lease on Parcel 23,23ab in 1805. Most likely the father to Margaret Gallagher wife of Denis Barrett.
Galagher     Bryan     Tumery

This is Thomas McQuaid born abt 1805, husband to Mary McCourt married 1833, son of Thomas and Rose McQuaid nee Teague born in Tummery. He lives in Lisdoo, Kilskerry with his mother Rose and siblings at the time of the Tithe. This land, in Tummery, is leased to farm,  on a year to year lease, Parcel 28 & 28a on the Encumbered Estate Sales listing.
McQuaid     Thomas     Tumery

This is Francis McNabb that holds the 3 Lives Lease on Parcel 27 in 1805.Father to Bernard that marries Bridget McQuaid in 1840.
McNabb     Francis     Tumery

This is James O’Donnell that holds the 3 Lives Lease on Parcel 37 in 1805. Father to John that marries Ann McQuaid in 1856
O’Donell     James     Tumery

This is Patrick McMahon that holds the 3 Lives Lease on Parcel 3 in 1805. Father to John that marries Catherine McQuaid in 1855.
McMahon     Patrick     Tumery


The list above is the Tithe Index. The original document is not online for the North of Ireland. It is available at PRONI in Belfast and as a microfilm from FamilySearch. The Republic Tithe records are online.
Here is a link to the Dromore Parish Tithe record. Tummery is images 178 to 182. Note how the names are clustered. You can see the family names from the 1805 leases in groups on the Tithe.


Encumbered Estates Court Rentals for Tummery

1855; Lessee's on Tummery lots

Between the 1805 Lease record and 1855, the following takes place: Note the # of people paying part of the lease on each Parcel. As each family grew through birth and marriage room was made for new houses as the individual came of age. As stated above in 1805 there were 42 total leases in Tummery, by the 1841 census there were 87 houses on the same number of leases. The number of leases does not change until the 3 Lives Leases expire between 1855-1860 when the Griffith’s Valuation was taken. Lot/parcel size will be adjusted to each individual paying rent and ALL Bog land will be divided into leasable parcels. The number of leases will go from 44 to 63 on the same acreage.

Parcel 4, Lot-1; 37A 2R 20P  Patrick McMahon, James Bernard, Sarah Gallagher, John Gallagher, Michael Gallagher. Patrick is the Father of John McMahon that marries Catherine McQuaid in 1855. I believe this is the same Patrick that takes the 3 Lives lease in 1805, on Lot 3, with brother Bryan McMahon.

Parcel 23, 23a, 23b, Lot-4; 21A 3R 10P Owen McQuade, Denis Barrett & Charles Gray are leasing portions of this 21A+ Parcel. The 1805, 3 Lives Lease to Bryan Gallagher is still active. Bryan Gallagher is most likely dead, as he is not listed as leasing in Tummery in 1855. Dieing between 1834 and 1855. Denis Barrett married Margaret Gallagher in 1834. She is most likely the daughter of Bryan.

Parcel 27, Lot-4; 8A 3R 20P Bernard M’Nabb born abt 1811 has taken over the active 3 Lives Lease that was held by Francis McNabb. Bernard is the son of Francis. Francis most likely died between 1834 and 1855. Bernard married Brigid McQuaid on 5 Apr 1840. They were given a Dispensation in the 3rd degree. The individuals marrying are 2nd cousins, with common Great Grandparents.  She is the daughter of Thomas McQuaid and Rose McQuaid nee Teague and the sister to Thomas McQuaid leasing parcel 28 & 28a in 1855.

Parcel 28, 28a, Lot-4; 13A 1R 0P Bernard Crane on 28a and Thomas McQuade , on 28, B1805 are leasing 1 of the 4 Parcels leased for Tenants from year to year, year ending 1st May. This is the son of Thomas McQuaid and Rose McQuaid nee Teague and the brother to Brigid married to Bernard McNabb on Parcel 27. Their parcels abut each other.

Parcel 36, Lot-3; 3A 0R 10P   John O’Donnell born abt 1923 and Cornelius O’Donnell are leasing 1 of the 4 Parcels for Tenants from year to year, year ending 1st May. John O’Donnell is the son of James O’Donnell with an 1805, 3 Lives Lease on Parcel 37. Cornelius O’Donnell is most likely a family member, a brother or Uncle.

Parcel 37, Lot-3; 12A 1R 0P John O’Donnell and Cornelius O’Donnell have taken over the active 1805, 3 Lives Lease that was held by James O’Donnell. John is the son of James. James most likely died between 1834 and 1855. John O’Donnell marries Anne McQuaid in 1856. She is the daughter of Thomas McQuaid B1805, on parcel 28 and the niece of Brigid McNabb nee McQuaid on parcel 27.

1860; Griffith’s Valuation


By the time of the Griffith’s Valuation, the 1805, 3 Life Leases in Tummery had expired. The 42 leases, as set up in 1805 were divided into the areas being paid for by individuals. The bogland was also divided up into lots. The numbering system for the Griffith’s Valuation and the resulting OS maps was different from the 3 Life Lease maps. A comparison needs to be made in order to match the numbering systems.

1805 3 Lives Lease Map Lot-4; Parcels 20-31 with Bog Parcel 43.




3 Lives Lease Map Lot-3; Parcels 31-42.


1805 3 Lives Lease Map Lot-1; Parcels 1-8 plus 43b Bog.



Tummery OS Map as applied to 1860 Griffith’s Valuation



A comparison gives the following Lot match ups for the lots used in this post.

1805 Parcel #
Griffith’s Valuation Lot #
4
51, 52, 53, & 54
23
into 9
23a & 23b & part of 43 bog
=10
27
=22
28
=21a
28a
=16
36
into 24
36
Divided into 21a & 24


1860 Griffith's Valuation Tummery

Lot-2a Thomas McQuaid Jr, 8A 1R 35P This is Thomas B1837, husband to Mary Barrett, married 1856, her father Denis, is on Lot-10. The Female National school is on Lot 2b. Note that Bernard & Bridget McNabb, Thomas’s Aunt & Uncle, are the witnesses at their 1856 wedding.


Lot-10 Denis Barrett, 16A 1R 15P
Lot-21A & 21B Thomas McQuaid, This is Thomas McQuaid B1805, Wife Mary McCourt. Father to Thomas on Lot-2a, Anne O’Donnell nee McQuaid on Lot-24a and Catherine McMahon Nee McQuaid on Lot-51, 52c.
Lot-22 Bernard McNabb,9A 1R 35P This is the husband of Brigid McQuaid sister to Thomas on lot 21A & 21B. Her mother was Rose McQuaid nee Teague who lived in Lisdoo, Kilskerry Parish, one field away. Rose McQuaid is living with her daughter Brigid McNabb in 1860 as she is not listed on the Lisdoo Griffith’s. She would be 91 years of age.
Rose dies in Tummery in 1864 at the age of 95. The death is reported by her daughter Brigid McNabb, present at death.



Lot-24a John O’Donnell 24b Cornelius O’Donnell 15A 3R 0P split 50/50. John is the Husband of Ann McQuaid, married 1856,  Daughter of Thomas on Lot 21A & 21B. Note John McMahon & (Catherine) Ellen McQuaid are the witnesses at their 1856 wedding. Ellen is married to John McMahon and the sister to Ann McQuaid.


Lot-43 Patrick McMahon, Land 9A 3R 15P Father to John on Lot-51, 52c.
Lot-51 John McMahon, Land 13A 2R 20P
Lot- 52c John McMahon, House only’ John is the Husband of Catherine Ellen McQuaid B1833, Daughter of Thomas on Lot 21A & 21B. John & Catherine have 4 children between 1859-1866. In 1868 Catherine dies along with their 5th child, in childbirth. John remarries in 1869, to Rose Doran. Thomas McQuaid, brother to John’s 1st wife is a witness at the wedding.The Civil Registration of marriage states John’s father is Patrick McMahon.




1866-1929 Griffith's Revaluation Books Tummery

1861-1866
Lot-2a Thomas McQuaid Jr
Lot-10 Denis Barrett
Lot-21A & 21B Thomas McQuaid B1805’ 1862 Thomas McQuaid is marked as ‘dead’ the lot has Pat Teague penciled in, 1865 the lease is taken over by Patrick Teague. He is a cousin of Thomas’s through his mother Rose.Lot-22 Bernard McNabb
Lot-24a John O’Donnell
Lot-24b Cornelius O’Donnell, 1862 Thomas McQuade is penciled in as taking over the Lot. 1865 the lease is taken over by Thomas McQuade. This is the brother to Ann O’Donnell nee McQuaid, married to John O’Donnell on Lot-24a. The same Thomas leasing Lot 2a. 1862 is the same year as the death of Thomas McQuaid B1805. Thomas and Ann’s mother, Mary McQuaid nee McCourt moves after the death of her husband in 1862, to either Lot-2a or 24b, both being paid by son Thomas.Lot-43 Patrick McMahon
Lot-51 & 52c John McMahon


1867-1880
Lot-2a Thomas McQuaid Jr
Lot-10 Denis Barrett, 1876 John Barrett, son of Denis, takes over the lease.
Lot-22 Bernard McNabb
Lot-24a John O’Donnell
Lot-24b Thomas McQuaid
Lot-43 Patrick McMahon 1876 the lease passes to John Campbel on Patrick’s death in 1874



Lot-51 & 52c John McMahon

1881
Lot-2a Thomas McQuaid Jr
Lot-10 John Barrett
Lot-22 Bernard McNabb
Lot-24a John O’Donnell
Lot-24b Thomas McQuaid, Hugh McDermit takes the lease in 1881. In May of 1880 Thomas McQuaid B1837, Wife Mary McQuaid Nee Barrett, their 9 children ages 9-24 and Rose Barrett, sister to Mary, appear on the Census in Monson, Massachusetts USA 

Lot-51 & 52c John McMahon

1882-1898
Lot-2a Thomas McQuaid Jr, 1885 Daniel O’Donnell Jr takes over the lease, 1896 Lease taken over by Joseph O’Donnell. The O’Donnell’s are family of Thomas’s brother-in-law John on Lot 24a.
Lot-10 John Barrett
Lot-22 Bernard McNabb, 1883 James McNabb, son of Bernard takes over the lease.Bernard died 20 Aug 1881 at age 70.
Lot-24a John O’Donnell, John’s wife Bridget O’Donnell Nee McQuaid dies on 5 Dec. 1895.Lot-24b Hugh McDermit
Lot-51 & 52c John McMahon, 1893 the lease passes to Rose McMahon, John’s 2nd wife, on his death 24 Nov 1890.


1899-1912
Lot-10 John Barrett
Lot-22 James McNabb
Lot-24a John O’Donnell, John O’Donnell dies 9 Oct 1901 at age 80. His son John takes over the lease. 1910 Bridget O’Donnell takes over the lease. She is the daughter of John O’Donnell.

Lot-24b Hugh McDermit, 1899 John O’Donnell Jr takes over the lease. He is the son of John on 24a, 1910 Bridget O’Donnell takes over the lease. She is the daughter of John O’Donnell and sister of John O’Donnell Jr.
Lot-51 & 52c Rose McMahon, 1899 the lease passes to Daniel Gallagher Jr. ALL of the McMahon’s are gone from Tummery.

1913-1929
Lot-10 John Barrett 1914 John Barrett buys his lot ‘In-Fee’ “LAP’, 1922 the Lot passes to James Barrett B1885, son of John Barrett. Lot-22 James McNabb
Lot-24a Bridget O’Donnell, 1929 the lot is given up to Patrick Teague a cousin through Bridget’s Grandmother Rose McQuaid Nee TeagueLot-24b Bridget O’Donnell, 1929 the lot is given up to Thomas Teague a cousin through Bridget’s Grandmother Rose McQuaid Nee Teague


1901 Census Tummery

There are NO McMahon’s in Tummery on the 1901 Census.
House #26 is Lot-10 John Barrett on the Griffith’s Valuation & Revision Books. The House walls are made of Stone, brick or Concrete, the roof is thatch, and it has 2 windows in the front. 8 occupants live in the houses 3 rooms. The farm has 4 other outbuildings.



House #22 is Lot-22 James McNabb on the Griffith’s Valuation & Revision Books. The House walls are made of Stone, brick or Concrete, the roof is thatch, and it has 2 windows in the front. 2 occupants live in the houses 2 rooms. The farm has 4 other outbuildings.


House #19 is Lot-24a & 24b John O’Donnell on the Griffith’s Valuation & Revision Books. The House walls are made of Stone, brick or Concrete, the roof is thatch, and it has 2 windows in the front. 3 occupants live in the houses 3 rooms. The farm has 6 other outbuildings. One of these outbuildings is the old house on Lot-24b.


1911 Census Tummery

There are NO McMahon’s in Tummery on the 1911 Census.
House #6 is Lot-10 John Barrett on the Griffith’s Valuation & Revision Books. The House walls are made of Stone, brick or Concrete, the roof is thatch, and it has 2 windows in the front. 5 occupants live in the houses 2 rooms. The farm has 4 other outbuildings.
John Barrett’s wife Rose Barrett Nee Gallagher died in 1903. Most of the children have gone to Massachusetts USA. Note that Margaret Agnes Gray, age 3, born in America is living with them. She is listed as a niece. She is John’s Granddaughter and daughter of Margaret Barrett married to Patrick Gray. One of John’s children must have supplied the info for the census. Margaret Barrett arrived in Monson Massachusetts in 1898. Passage paid for by Uncle Thomas McQuaid of Monson Massachusetts. She married Patrick Gray in Boston in 1903. Margaret assisted her siblings in going to Boston.





House #12 is Lot-22 James McNabb on the Griffith’s Valuation & Revision Books. The House walls are made of Stone, brick or Concrete, the roof is thatch, and it has 2 windows in the front. 6 occupants live in the houses 3 rooms. The farm has 3 other outbuildings.
James McNabb married Sarah Sweeny of Tummery on the 26 of Nov 1903





House #15 is Lot-24a & 24b John O’Donnell on the Griffith’s Valuation & Revision Books. In 1910 Bridget O’Donnell took over the lease.The House on this lot is not occupied. The Census Form B1 (House and Building return) states the Leaseholder, Bridget O’Donnell is away in ‘America’. She continues to pay the lease until 1929.


Thus ends the 124 year long trail of land leading to the Thomas McQuaid family of Tummery, Dromore Parish, County Tyrone.

Tuesday, March 8, 2016

Fair Day Triangles; part-III

What affect did the  ‘Fair Day Triangle’ theory have on the dispersion of McQuaid/McQuade families in Tyrone and Fermanagh?

This is a part three of a three part post on what I refer to as ‘Fair Day Triangles’, an attempt at determining the size of the foot print that our ancestors lived their lives in.  Part-I & Part II can be found at these links.

Parts I and II of this series gave you a look at the size of the foot print my McQuaid family lived in and the reasons for their travels. As you can see this changed with time. This post will show you where the McQuaid’s (McQuade’s) settled at the time of the Tithe, 1823-1837. Or, how they dispersed over the ‘Fair Day Triangles’.

A picture tells a thousand words, so I will let them tell the story. 



70% of all McQuaid/McQuade families, in County Tyrone, lived within the 12 mile radius circle of Tummery. Dromore Parish, County Tyrone at the time of the Tithe.



100% of all McQuaid/McQuade families, in County Fermanagh, lived within the 12 mile radius circle of Tummery, Dromore Parish, County Tyrone at the time of the Tithe.

The largest concentrations of McQuaid/McQuade families were in Dromore and Kilskerry Parishes.





I have come across hundreds of McQuaid/McQuade families, from Counties Tyrone and Fermanagh, living in the United States, Canada , Australia, Scotland and England, in my search for family connections. They have left their prints across the globe. There are message boards on the WEB dedicated to finding McQuaid/McQuade families in Tyrone. Hopefully this series of posts will help someone that is trying to retrace their family footsteps. The McQuaid/McQuade families have left a print, a 12 mile radius print, in this corner of Ireland.

Part-I & Part II can be found at these links.

Fair Day Triangles; part-II

This is a part two of a three part post on what I refer to as ‘Fair Day Triangles’, an attempt at determining the size of the foot print that our ancestors lived their lives in.     Part-I & Part III can be found at these links.
As stated in my previous post, a person could travel up to 12 miles, in one direction, conduct their business, and return home, in one day.
Reasons for travel could be as follows;
  • Church
  • Availability of roads and means of communication
  • Legal affairs
  • Medical needs
  • Market and Fair days
  • Civil registration of birth, marriage and death after 1864

Church
One would travel with-in their parish for church. But this could also change over time. As an example my McQuaid’s were from Lisdoo, Kilskerry parish, they also leased land in Tummery, Dromore parish. They went to Magheralough Chapel (St. Macartrn’s) in Stranagomer, Kilskerry, 3.5 miles away. My Thomas McQuaid married Mary Ann Barrett,  4 Feb, 1856. She was from Tummerry, Dromore parish, only a field away. They were married in Dromore, Dromore parish, 5 miles away. On the same day Thomas’s sister Anna, married John O’Donnell from Tummery. They were married in Magherlough Chapel. I can see the precession walking across the field from Lisdoo to Tummerry, 5 miles to Dromore, Dromore parish, 5-6 miles to Stranagomer, Kilskerry parish, and 3.5 miles back to Tummery, where they all took up residence. Although, the train from Dromore to Trillick started in 1854, so maybe they splurged, and took the ride on that leg of the journey. They were lucky that they married in 1856 and not after 1864. No one had to walk the 5-6 miles from Stranagomer to Irvinestown, to provide information, for civil registration with the PLU, for Anna’s marriage. Or, 8.8 miles from Dromore to Omagh to register Thomas’s marriage.

Roads and means of communication changed over time as follows; 

“The greater part of the road pattern was already in place in 1740. The main Enniskillen and Londonderry road originally passed through Tempo and over the mountains to Fintona and on to Omagh. In 1828 a new road was made to avoid the mountains that divided Fermanagh and Tyrone. It is a little longer than the original, but has the advantage of being level. From the Enniskillen-Iervinstown road a trunk route strikes out northeast along a lowland corridor by Ballinamallard, Trillick and Dromore, towards Omagh. This opened communication with Dromore and Trillick and would become the route for the railway in the 1850's.”

Taylor & Skinner: Maps of the Roads of Ireland Surveyed 1777, indicate that the road from from Omagh to Enniskillen, through Trilick and Dromore, did exist in 1777. The problem was that it was not wide enough for a large coach or car. Traffic was by foot, horse back or small cart. Thus the main route went over the mountains via Tempo, Fintona to Omagh.

‘By the 1830’s ‘Roads here were described as being quite good. The main road from Omagh to Enniskillen passed through Fintona, Trillick and Kilskeery and was in good repair, the road from Dromore to Trillick was just being made, while the roads from Trillick to Tempo and Fivemiletown were described as hilly and in great need of repair.’

This means that prior to 1828 Dromore and Trillick were isolated and the major route from the south and east, going north, went around them. That meant for people living in these areas, there was an advantage to going to market and fairs in Fintona, Omagh or Tempo. These towns were also Post Towns because the mail coach passed through. Drumquin is also on the road from Londonderry to Enniskillen via Omagh. Dromore had no weekly market at this time and the market in Trillick was local. The hiring fair in Trillick, in May and November, had a wide draw.

Places to conduct Legal affairs changed over time as follows;

Petty Sessions:

Petty Sessions were formally established with legislation in 1827, although they had been in operation for centuries before that. By 1851, amid growing concerns about the fairness of some of the justices of the peace, the Petty Sessions (Ireland) Act sought to tighten up the rules. JPs were gradually replaced by trained and paid magistrates as the 19th century went on.

Covering both civil and criminal cases, the Petty Sessions’ brief was wide. Cases ranged from merchants who had not paid duty on their goods, to workers suing for unpaid wages. Farmers were fined for letting their cattle wander or for allowing their cart to be driven without their name painted on the side. Debts were collected and disputes settled. Public drunkenness was a common offence, as was assault and general rowdiness. Political feelings were often volatile and there are frequent cases all over the country of people charged with putting up seditious posters or leaflets. When the court had no jurisdiction to hear a case, when the case was of too serious a nature, JPs were obliged to process them, pass them on, to the Quarterly Sessions or the Assizes Court. In these cases, the accused was usually committed to the local gaol to await trial.

Petty Sessions were held in all of the Market/Fair towns listed in my previous post with the exception of Dromore and Drumquin.

Quarter Sessions:


Quarter sessions for Criminal acts. (Quarter sessions meant court was held four times per year).
  • 1796, June 22, Proclam. Tyrone divided into two districts. 1. Omagh consisting of the baronies of Omagh & Strabane. With the towns of Omagh & Strabane alternating Quarter sessions for this district. 2. Dungannon consisting of the baronies of Dungannon and Upper Dungannon and Clogher. With the towns of Dungannon and Clogher alternating Quarter sessions for this district.
  • 1837, Dec 22, Proclam.  Dividing the County of Tyrone and appointing court towns. Amended the Act of 1796 and set FORTH as follows, making four Districts;
    1. Dungannon, consisting of the barony of Dungannon, held in the town of Dungannon
    2. Clogher, consisting of the barony of Clogher. Held in th town of Clogher
    3. Omagh, consisting of the barony of Omagh and so much of the parishes of Cappagh and Termonmagaguirk as are situated in the barony of Stabane, save and except, however, so much of the said barony of Omagh in the parish of Termonamongan and such parish or portion of land called the Skirts of Urney and Skirts of Ardstraw. Held in the town of Omagh.
    4. Strabane, consisting of the barony of Strabane and so much of the barony of Omagh in the parish of Termonamongan and such parish or portion of land called the Skirts of Urney and Skirts of Ardstraw, save and except, however, so much of the said barony of Strabane in the parishes of Cappagh and Termonmagaguirk as are situated in the barony of Srtabane. Held in the town of Strabane.
  • 1864. Oct 4, Proclam.  Consolidating Districts of Omagh and Strabane into district of Omagh and appointing Court Town.
    Shifts the Parish of Bodoney Lower from Strabane to Omagh.
  • 1876, Oct 4,  Proclam. Transferring all criminal business (except appeals from Petty Sessions) from Clogher and Stabane to Omagh.
    Transfers all sessions from Strabane and Clogher to Omagh, except appeals from Petty Sessions.
This link has detail of changes.

Assizes:
The Assizes had jurisdiction outside Dublin over the most serious criminal offenses, such as treason and murder. Persons accused of these crimes would first come before the Petty Sessions, where a justice of the peace or resident magistrate would decide if there was sufficient evidence to justify a trial. If such evidence existed, the magistrate would issue a bill of indictment and refer to matter to a Grand Jury, which would decide if the bill was correct and supported by evidence, issuing an indictment.

Omagh, for Co. Tyrone and Enniskillen, for Co, Fermanagh, held courts Assizes.

Places to address medical needs were as follows.

Between 1821 and 1837, all of the market towns listed in my first post were listed as having a dispensary. The county Infirmary was in Omagh for Tyrone and Enniskillen for County Fermanagh.

In 1834 the Tyrone county Infirmary was located in the town of Omagh. In 1833 there were 234 patients. The prevailing diseases were scrofula (tuberculosis), lues veneria (syphilis), ulcers, and accidents.

The Omagh Poor Law Union was formally declared on 9 May, 1839. The workhouse was opened in 1841. During the famine the whole workhouse was turned over to a Fever Hospital. A purpose-built fever hospital was subsequently erected to the north of the workhouse.

The Lowtherstown (Irvinestown) Poor law Union was formally declared on 14 September, 1840. The workhouse opened in 1844. During the famine, in the mid-1840’s, a 40 bed fever hospital was erected to the north of the workhouse.

The Enniskillen Poor Law Union was formally declared on 10 August, 1840. The workhouse opened in 1844. During the famine, a hired house and sheds were appropriated to accommodate 120 fever patients. A fever hospital was erected at the south of the workhouse and opened in October 1849.

In 1853 The County Tyrone Lunatic Asylum was opened  in Omagh.

Markets and Fair Days

Markets and Fairs were held as listed in my last post. Note the locations of Fairs that specialized in Livestock and Linen.

The following is from; ‘The Little Book of Tyrone’, by Cathal Coyle

“Hiring Fairs also took place and Tyrone was a county that was strongly associated with the practice. Prospective employees offered themselves for work on farms and household duties to farmers for the agricultural season. Their treatment varied from farm to farm, and when the annual contract expired, the fair was the meeting place. It was Strabane that hosted the biggest hiring fair in Tyrone. As with most towns, the main fairs lasted two days and were held in May and November. Strabane’s fair served not only the immediate area but a wider area stretching from West Donegal to Cavan and Monaghan.

Some Tyrone hiring fairs dated back as far as the seventeenth century, including those at Trillick, Killeter and Drumquin. Many of the people hired came from the west coast of Donegal.”

This reminds me of an old story handed down by my 3rd cousins mother, a former resident of Tummery, Dromore parish. Tummery is divided into two sections, Tummery Gallagher and Tummery Teague. My family has a Tyrone Gallagher line. When asked why there are so many Gallagher families in the area, she would give the following reply. “Many years ago five Gallagher brothers came over the hill from Donegal. Their purpose was to take as a wife the daughter of a well to-do farmer.” I can see them hiring themselves out to farmers that had daughters of the right age. By the end of the work season they were well on the way to a marriage agreement. Parcels of land were given as a dowry by the farmers they worked for.

This explains why I have DNA connections to Gallagher lines from Donegal, while not having any known connection to that county. The 1855 Encumbered Estates Court Sales for Tummery, lists the three lives leases given in 1805. At that time leases were given to nine Gallagher’s. If the story is true it took place in the seventeen hundreds.

From Francis Kelly, ‘The Old Ballad of the Killeter Fair’


  • Attention pay, you country folk, a wee while if you please.
  • I’ll sing to you a verse or two, to amuse you at my ease.
  • It’s all about a handsome girl, her equal would be rare,
  • And the first place that I met her was in Killeter Fair.
Chorus
  • Her eyes they shone like diamonds, 
  •  and her cheeks bloomed like the rose,  .  
  • She is my first, my only love, no matter where she goes.     
  • She stole my heart completely, boys, the truth I must declare,  
  • And the first place that I met her was in Killeter Fair.


Civil Registration of 1864


The Market Towns on the Fair Day Triangle Map fall in three Poor Law Unions. But the 12 mile radius circles of these Market Towns fall within five Poor Law Unions.


  • Fintona, Donacavey parish is in the Omagh PLU, but the southern end of the parish is in the Clogher PLU.
  • Dromre, Dromore Parish is in the Omagh PLU, but the south western part of the parish is in the Irvinestown Fermanagh PLU.
  • Trillick, Kilskerry Parish is in the Irvinestown, Fermanagh PLU, but the eastern part of the parish is in the Enniskillen, Fermanagh PLU
  • Omagh, Drumragh Parish is in the OMAGH PLU.
  • Ievinestown, Derryvullen parish, Fermanagh is in the Irvinestown PLU
  • Drumquin, East Longfield Parish is in the OMAGH PLU and  West Longfield is in Castlederg PLU

When Civil Registration of birth, marriage and death became mandatory, in 1864, the registration took place at the PLU the event took place in. Most people were born and died at home and were married in a church. For my family living in Tummery, Dromore parish, Tyrone, a birth or death, at home, was reported to the PLU in Irvinestown, county Fermanagh. A marriage at the parish church in Dromore, Dromore parish, was reported to the PLU in Omagh, Drumragh Parish, county Tyrone. If a person from Tummery going to the Drumquin Fair was trampled by a horse and died, on the west side of the town, the death had to be  reported at the Castlederg PLU. If it happened on the east side of town, it was reported to the PLU in Omagh. If you cannot find a civil death record, listed under the PLU for the townland your ancestor lived in, maybe he did not die at home. Note that the dispensaries were in the market towns, the county infirmaries were in Omagh or Enniskillen and fever hospitals were at the work houses. They were most likely in a different PLU from where the person lived.

The coming of the Railway

The coming of the ‘Londonderry & Enniskillen Railway’ in the 1850’s had a great affect on travel within the Fair Day Triangle Map. The railway followed the level route of the road built in 1828, Omagh, Fintona, Dromore, Trillick and Enniskillen. The railway by-passed the mountain road to Fivemiletown and Clogher. To get to these places one had to take the railway to Enniskillen and transfer east. The coming of livestock cars and and easy means of transport for large buyers from the east would drive those selling cattle, pigs and linen to the fairs along the railway, namely Trillick, Fintona and Omagh.

In the 2nd half of the 19th century, the railway greatly increased the 12 mile radius circle that the Fair day Triangle map is based on. The railway reached Newtownstewat and Omagh in 1852, Fintona in 1853 and Dromore, Trillick, Irvinestown and Enniskillen in 1854.








I can envision the procession in May of 1880, when Thomas McQuaid, his wife Mary Barrett and nine children, age 5-24, walked from Tummery to Dromore Road station to catch the train to Londonderry (Derry). The 1 hr 50 min. ride would take them to the ship leaving for America. What was going through their head as they left a life of living in a 12 mile radius circle and headed out on a 3,000+ mile trip across the sea?


 Part-I & Part III can be found at these links.

Tuesday, March 1, 2016

‘Fair Day Triangles’ or Where did your G…Grandparents meet?

This is a part one of a three part post on what I refer to as ‘Fair Day Triangles’, an attempt at determining the size of the foot print that our ancestors lived their lives in.   Part-II & Part III can be found at these links.
Have you ever researched your family history and did not consider a finding because the family in question did not live in the same townland or parish as your known family? Have you run into a brick wall when researching the family of the bride, because there is no family by that name in the townland or parish? Have you ever wondered how far afield your ancestor would have traveled to meet their future spouse, or where and how they met?

To answer these questions we need to know several things.
  • Where did they go for church?
  • Where and when did they go for Market and Fair days?
  • Where did they go for court and legal affairs?
  • What was the means of transportation at the time and how fast could they travel? Could they make it to their destination and back, with time to conduct business, in one day?
  • Were there roads to and from their destination?

This post will attempt to answer these questions for my ancestors living in Tummery, Dromore Parish, County Tyrone.
Means of Transport
In the 18th & 19th century, the means of transportation for the farmer in Tyrone was walking or by horse.
  • A person walking will average 3-4 miles per hour.
  • A person, on foot,  leading a horse, will average 3-4 miles per hour.
  • A horse with person riding, with or without cart, will average 5 to 8 miles per hour at a slow trot.

With these limitations, a person could travel up to 12 miles, each way, and have time to conduct business, in one day.
The following illustration shows the area within a 12 mile radius of Tummery, Dromre Parish Tyrone.


As can be seen Tummery is 5 miles from the town of Dromore, where the Parish church is located. My family most likely went to Market in any of the towns in green or yellow.

Several questions arise when looking at the map.
  • When going to any of these market towns I could meet people coming from a 12 mile radius of the town, not just the 12 mile radius of Tummery. What area did this cover?
  • What days were the Markets and Fairs conducted in each town? Did they compete or adjust their schedules for the biggest draw? Did the markets and Fairs sell the same things or did one have to go to different places to sell cattle, pigs or flax?
  • What towns held court and had dispensaries?
The following illustration shows the area within a 12 mile radius each town.


This opens up the possibility of meeting people from most of western Tyrone, County Fermanagh and part of County Donegal.  Also note that the towns coordinated the days of the week for markets and days of the month for fairs. This allowed the town to draw the largest crowds. Also note that Dromore did not have a weekly market. This means my family from Tummery, Dromore Parish, most likely went to Trillick, Irvinestown or Drumquin for market.

The illustration above sheds light on DNA matches that I have received.
  • My 3rd GGrand parents were Denis Barrett and Margaret Gallagher. Denis is on the 1834 Tithe, in Tummery. He is also listed, on the same lot, in 1855 when the townland was sold and listed on the ‘Encumbered Estates Court Sales’. This document also states that the lot he leases in 1855 was originally given in a ‘3 lives’ lease to Bryan Gallagher in 1805. I assume that the Margaret Gallagher, that Denis married, was the daughter of this Bryan, but this is not proven. The question arises as to where Denis Barrett came from between 1805 and 1834 and where did he meet Miss Gallagher? The Gallagher's are from Tummery, Dromore, but there is no other Barrett in Dromore Parish on the Tithe. My DNA match is to a Barrett family from Aughadulla, Drumragh Parish, Tyrone. Aughadulla townland is close to Dumquin  and Omagh, both within my Tummerry, 12 mile, ‘Fair Day Triangle’ area.
  • I have two DNA matches to the Moss family line. One from Garvagh townland in Termonamongan Parish, Tyrone (Just north of Killeter). This goes back to the late 18th century, and the other from Fintona, Donacavey Parish, Tyrone, which goes back to the mid 19th century. There is no Moss listed on the 1827 Donacavey  or Dromore 1834 Tithe, but many on the 1828 Termonamongan Tithe. Note that Killitter, Tummery and Fintona are well within the Drumquin 12 mile radius circle.

The following is a listing of markets and fairs by town, from ‘A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837’ & ‘Ordnance Survey Memoirs Co. Tyrone 1821, 1823,1831-36’.

FINTONA, a post-town, in the parish of DONAGHCAVEY, barony of CLOGHER, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 7 miles (S.) from Omagh
The market is on Friday, and is well supplied with all kinds of provisions; and large quantities of brown linens are sold every alternate Friday to the bleachers, who attend from a great distance. A fair is held on the 22nd of every month, which is large and well attended. Petty sessions are held on the second Tuesday in each month; and a court leet and baron for the manor of Castlemaine once a month, for the recovery of debts under 40s. There is a dispensary.

DROMORE, a parish, in the barony of OMAGH, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 8 miles (S. W.) from Omagh, on the road from that place to Enniskillen.
Is a constabulary police station, and has a penny post to Omagh, and a dispensary. Fairs are held for farming stock on Feb. 1st, March 17th, Easter-Monday, Whit-Monday, May 1st, June 24th, Aug. 1st, Sept. 29th, Nov. 1st and 26th, and Dec. 26th. No weekly Market Day at this point in time.

TRILLICK, a market-town, in the parish of KILSKERRY, barony of OMAGH, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 9 miles (N. by E.) from Enniskillen, on the road to Omagh, to both which places it has a penny post.
In which a market is held every Tuesday, chiefly for butter and provisions; and there is a fair on the 14th of every month, including a Hiring Fair. This is a constabulary police station; petty sessions are held on alternate Mondays; and courts leet and baron every three weeks, for the recovery of debts under 50s. There is a dispensary.

OMAGH, an assize, market and post-town, partly in the parish of CAPPAGH, but chiefly in that of DRUMRAGH, barony of OMAGH, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 26 ¼ miles (S. E.) from Londonderry.
The market, held on Saturday, is well supplied with provisions, and on alternate Saturdays brown linens are exposed for sale: a market-house was built in 1830, in which grain and vegetables are sold, and a very convenient range of shambles was opened in 1834. Fairs are held on the first Saturday of every month for all kinds of cattle. There is a dispensary and County Infirmary. The assizes for the county are held here; as are the quarter sessions for the baronies of Omagh and Strabane, alternately with the town of Strabane. A court baron is also held every third Thursday for the manor of Audleston, at which the seneschal of the lord of the manor presides: debts to the amount of £4 are recoverable in it.

IRVINESTOWN, or LOWTHERSTOWN, a market and post-town, in that part of the parish of DERRYVULLEN which is in the barony of LURG, county of FERMANAGH, and province of ULSTER, 7 ¾ miles (N. W.) from Enniskillen.
It has a dispensary, a constabulary police station, and petty sessions are held on alternate Wednesdays. The market is on Wednesday, and fairs are held on the 8th of each month and on the 12th of April.

DRUMQUIN, a market-town, partly in the parish of EAST LONGFIELD and WEST LONGFIELD, barony of OMAGH, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 7 miles (W.N.W.) from Omagh, on the river Roe, and on the nearest road from Londonderry to Enniskillen. There is a daily penny post to Omagh. The market, on Thursday, is well supplied with provisions and yarn; and fairs are held on Jan. 17th, March 21st, May 2nd, June 9th, Aug. 15th, Sept. 17th, Nov. 9th, and Dec. 12th, for general farming stock: those held in March and June are large and well attended. Quarterly cattle fairs, to which English dealers resort, are the principal means of circulating money. Here are a meeting- house for Presbyterians, in connection with the Synod of Ulster, a large male and female school, and a dispensary

ENNISKILLEN, a borough and market-town, and a parish, partly in the barony of MAGHERABOY, but chiefly in that of TYRKENNEDY, county of FERMANAGH, (of which it is the chief town), and province of ULSTER, 21 ½ miles (S. E.) from Ballyshannon, and 80 ½ (N. N. W.) from Dublin. The patent granted to William Cole, in 1612, authorized the holding of a market on Thursdays, and a fair on Lammas-day, with tolls; and in 1813 a patent was granted to the Earl of Enniskillen for holding fairs on the 10th of each month, except March, May, and August. Besides the general market on Thursdays, a butter market is held on Tuesdays. A butter and grain market have been built on land belonging to the Earl, at an expense of upwards of £900; there is another market-house under the town-hall, also a pig market; and convenient shambles have been erected at an expense of £750, which was advanced by the Earl to the corporation. The borough court, held every Thursday, has jurisdiction to the amount of £3. 6. 8. The assizes for the county and quarter sessions of the peace are held in the county court-house, which is a plain building near the eastern bridge. There is a dispensary and County Infirmary.
What were the condition of the roads between Market Towns and how were they maintained?
From; The Industrial Archaeology of Northern Ireland
by W.A. McCutcheon
Director, Ulster Museum, Belfast
ISBN 0-8386-3125-8

Road travel and traffic in the stage coach era, 1740-1850. p16
’It would appear that in Ireland the 17th century, and the early years of the 18th, were characterized by a general absence of wheeled vehicles, on a fairly primitive road network. Those people who did have occasion to move about the country walked or rode horseback, whilst goods were conveyed by pack-horse. Gradually the statutory labor provided by the parishes for six days in each year began to effect improvement in the overall condition of Ulster roads but not on sufficiently wide a front as to stimulate any immediate increase in the use of wheeled vehicles. Right through the 18th century horseback remained the most popular method of travel. By the beginning of the 19th century the native car popular with farmers in remote areas had two small solid wheels fixed to an axle and was a simple advance from the older slide car or slipe.



‘It was noted that twenty years ago (1780) very few wheel cars were to be met with, except in the neighborhood of principal towns such as Dungannon, Omagh and Strabane, now every farmer of any note is possessed on one, though in many situations it can never be applied so usefully as the common slide car. Frequently the wheel cart is on no more use than that of occasionally going to market or fairs. Slide cars cost 3s 9d to 5s 5d and wheel cars from four to six quineas.
Co. Fermanagh, The greater part of the road pattern was already in place in 1740. The main Enniskillen and Londonderry road originally passed through Tempo and over the mountains to Fintona and on to Omagh. In 1828 a new road was made to avoid the mountains that divided Fermanagh and Tyrone. It is a little longer than the original, but has the advantage of being level. From the Enniskillen-Iervinstown road a trunk route strikes out northeast along a lowland corridor by Ballinamallard, Trillick and Dromore, towards Omagh. This opened communication with Dromore and Trillick and would become the route for the railway in the 1850's.’

‘In 1613 an act was passed in the Irish parliament which made Ireland independent of Britain in the matter of road making. During the century and a half following the original enactment of 1613 the maintenance of roads in Ireland was the responsibility of the parish, operating a system of direct, statutory labor. The Act of 1613 required parishes to maintain those roads within their boundaries which served the principal market towns, using the direct labor resources available in the parish, as decreed and marshaled by directors and overseers, for a MINIMUM of six days within the period from Easter to Midsummer Day. The more substantial parishioners - those occupying a plough land (100 acres) or anyone owning a plough - were required to contribute a cart and horse, and four men. Other householders and tenants had to attend in person and where any of these did not have the tools necessary for road work the justices of the peace could impose a levy of 2 pounds on the parish for their purchase. This continued to be the chief means of repairing the roads of Ireland for one hundred and fifty years (1613-1765) and though amending acts were passed, statutory six day labor remained basically unaltered. Towards the end of the period of parochial interest it became obvious that a method of road repair originating in a subsistence economy was unable to cope with the changing economic circumstances of the mid 18th century. A system of road repair by Presentment gained rapidly in importance as the 18th century progressed and the older form of parochial organization became more and more an anachronism, eventually giving rise to civil unrest throughout the west of Ulster in the 'Oakboy' demonstrations of 1763. In 1765 the long standing system of six day labor was abolished though in the north of Ireland the activities of the parishes in road repair did not end. The Act of 1765 marked the end of the use of direct labor on the repair of major roads and also recognized the construction of new lines of roads, extending across a number of parishes. Direct, unpaid labor was no longer employed, rather, the money collected throughout the parish, from occupiers of land, at a penny or two pence per acre, was now used to employ paid labor under the direction of a wage earning overseer. New roads had to be no less then 14 ft graveled and 30 ft between drains and fences. This freed laborers and tradesmen from the requirement of 6 day statutory labor and put the whole burden on those who owned or leased land. The act of 1765 had laid down that presentments for road works should be levied on the barony within which the work lay, those for bridge works on the county-at-large. In 1805 the presentment expenditures for Co. Tyrone were 17,491 pounds, in 1845 it had grown to 37,343 pounds. The small farmer now paid the Presentment (road) tax covering the parish, barony and county levels, Tithe to the Church of Ireland or Poor Law rates, Small Dues to the Church of Ireland for each Marriage, Baptism and Funeral, whether or not it occurred in their own church, The Hearth tax, The Window tax, Fees to use and sell at Market,charges of the weigh master, Excise tax on Mills, Kilns, distilleries, maltsters… ect, on top of the rent on their land and mandatory days of labor to the lease holder as set forth in their lease.’

‘Roads here were described as being quite good in the 1830s. The main road from Omagh to Enniskillen passed through Fintona, Trillick and Kilskeery and was in good repair, the road from Dromore to Trillick was just being made, while the roads from Trillick to Tempo and Fivemiletown were described as hilly and in great need of repair. There were two public conveyances serving Trillick, the Rover and the Tallyho. Each was drawn by 2 horses, the first a sort of caravan or stage-coach and the second a double outside jaunting car. The conveyances left Omagh each morning at 5.30 a.m., arrived in Trillick around 9 a.m., then on to Enniskillen, arriving back here at 5 p.m. and continuing on to Omagh.’





Taylor & Skinner: Maps of the Roads of Ireland Surveyed 1777



 Part-II & Part III can be found at these links.

Sunday, February 28, 2016

Townlands & Local Placenames of Kilskerry Parish County Tyrone

 Compiled by T.T. McQuaid

Marked on the Ordinance Survey Maps of Co. Tyrone, sheets 49, 50, 56 & 57.

Tyrone Civil Parishes






The information contained in this article was compiled from the following sources:

- Parish of Kilskeery. The Place-Names Explained, by B. O'Daly; Clogher Record, Vol. 2, No. 1 (1957), pp. 71-96, Clogher Historical Society, “Courtesy of JSTOR.” http://www.jstor.org/stable/27695445 

- Around Trillick Way' published 1990 by Michael McCaughey, presently out of print.

- The “Ordnance Survey Memoirs of Ireland, Parishes of County Tyrone 1, 1821, 1823, 1831-36, North, West and South Tyrone”. “OSM-1834” The number of houses and inhabitants, arable acres, and acres of mountain and bog.

- The Tithe Applotment 1826, Kilskerry, Tyrone. (Surnames by Townland are given under this WEB link.) Compiled between 1823 and 1837 in order to determine the amount which occupiers of agricultural holdings over one acre should pay in tithes to the Church of Ireland (the main Protestant church and the church established by the State until its dis-establishment in 1871). The number of Holdings/Surnames is given.

- The Census of Ireland, Co. Tyrone 1881; Part I; Area, Houses, and Population; Vol. III, Province of Ulster, No. 9 County of Tyrone; Info from the table comparing the 1841 to 1881 census for Dromore Parish, by townland, including houses and population.

- Hearth Money Rolls of 1666 - was levied half yearly by the Sheriff of each county on the basis of lists of the names of householders compiled by local Justices of the Peace. The list of the households required to pay the Hearth Tax became known as the Hearth Money Rolls, which were arranged by county, barony, parish, and townland. The tax was sometimes collected over an area known as a 'walk', which was based on both the town and a large rural area outside the town. This is why you may see multiple townlands, for one entry. The surname could have been in either townland. The Hearth Money Rolls used here were from; Hearth Money and Subsidy Rolls: Co Tyrone (Clogher Diocese), by P.O. Gallachair, Clogher Record, Vol 5, No 3 (1965), pp. 379-387, note that at the time the location on the record was Tyrone Co., Omagh Barony, Maghericross Parish, NOT Kilskerry Parish. The  Rolls can be found at The Public Records Office of Northern Ireland (PRONI), T 307, pp. 249-257.

Note 1: On the Ordnance Survey Maps and Memoirs and the Tithe Applotment, acres were “Irish or Plantation acres”, not English statute acres. The English statute acre is used on the 1841, and latter, census and the Griffith’s Valuation of 1864. The Irish acre is 1.62 times larger than the English statute acre. The difference between the Irish acre and the statute acre arises from the fact that the Irish mile is 1411 miles (1.273 miles (2.049 km)). Irish Acres X 1.62 = English Standard Acres


“Those who know the value of these ancient names as badges of personal identification will continue to use them, because they have served our people so well for so long, ….. not to mention those who have inherited our rich heritage of familiar placenames.”


Townlands of Kilskerry Parish County Tyrone





Back Ground

One cannot attempt a study of Townland and placenames with out first exploring the term Townland, itself.

A townland or bally (Irish: baile fearainn) is a small geographical division of land used in Ireland. The townland system is of Gaelic origin, pre-dating the Norman invasion, and most have names of Irish Gaelic origin. However, some townland names and boundaries come from Norman manors, plantation divisions, or later creations of the Ordnance Survey. 

In Ireland, a townland is the smallest administrative division of land. Whilst the concept of townlands is based on the Gaelic system of land division, it was in the 1600s that they became mapped and defined by the English administration for the purpose of portioning the land for investors or grants. The first official evidence of the existence of this Gaelic land division system can be found in church records from before the 12th century.

The term baile, anglicised as "bally", is the most dominant element used in Irish townland names. Whilst today the term "bally" denotes a town or urban settlement, its precise meaning in ancient Ireland is unclear, as towns had no place in Gaelic social organization. The modern Irish term for a townland is baile fearainn (plural: bailte fearainn). The term fearainn means "land, territory, quarter".

The Normans, despite not having a serious influence on townland names, adapted some of them for their own use, possibly seeing a similarity between the Gaelic baile and the Norman bailey, both of which meant a settlement.

Throughout most of Ulster, townlands were known as "ballyboes" (Irish: baile bó, meaning "cow land" and represented an area of pastoral economic value.

In County Cavan, similar units were called "polls", and in counties Fermangh and Monaghan they were known as "tates" or "taths". In regard to tates, modern townlands with the prefix tat- are confined almost exclusively to the diocese of Clogher (which covers counties Fermanagh, Monaghan, and Clogher barony in County Tyrone), and it cannot be confused with any other Irish word.

In County Tyrone the following hierarchy of land division was used: "ballybetagh" (Irish: baile biataigh, meaning "victualler's place"), "ballyboe", "sessiagh" (Irish: séú cuid, meaning sixth part of a quarter), "gort" and "quarter" (Irish:ceathrú). In County Fermanagh it was: "ballybetagh", "quarter" and "tate". Further sub-divisions in Fermanagh appear to be related to liquid or grain measures such as "gallons", "pottles", and "pints".

In Ulster the ballybetagh was the territorial unit controlled by an Irish sept, typically containing around 16 townlands. Fragmentation of ballybetaghs resulted in units consisting of four, eight, and twelve townlands. One of these fragmented units, the "quarter" (representing a quarter of a ballybetagh), was the universal land denomination recorded in the 1608 survey for County Donegal. In the early 17th century, 20% of the total area of western Ulster was under the control of the church. These "termon" lands consisted likewise of ballybetaghs and ballyboes, but were held by erenaghs instead of sept leaders.

Thomas Larcom, the first director of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, made a study of the ancient land divisions of Ireland and summarized the traditional hierarchy of land divisions thus:

10 acres - 1 Gneeve; 2 Gneeves - 1 Sessiagh; 3 Sessiaghs - 1 Tate or Ballyboe; 2 Ballyboes - 1 Ploughland, Seisreagh or Carrow; 4 Ploughlands - 1 Ballybetagh, or Townland; 30 Ballybetaghs - Triocha Céad or Barony. The Ordnance Survey maps used the statute acre measurement.

Townlands vary in size from the smallest, of less than an acre (Old Church Yard, Carrickmore, parish of Termonmagurk, County Tyrone).

The ballyboe (a townland unit used in Ulster) was described in 1608 as containing sixty acres of arable land, meadow, and pasture, however this was misleading as the size of townlands under the Gaelic system varied depending upon their quality, situation, and economic potential. This economic potential ranged from the extent of land required to graze cattle to the land required to support several families. The highest density of townland units recorded in Ulster in 1609 corresponds to the areas with the highest land valuations in the 1860s.

It seems that many moorland areas were not divided into townlands until fairly recently. These areas were "formerly shared as a common summer pasturage by the people of a whole parish or barony". The Ordnance Survey for taxation purposes, documented and standardized the boundaries of the more than 60,000 townlands in Ireland. This process often involved dividing or amalgamation of existing townlands, and defining townland boundaries in areas such as mountain or bog land that had previously been outside the townland system.

NA TRI LIAG – Site of the original settlement of Trillick Mor, from which the name of Trillick has survived for 4000 years.

Method

“Many of the old Irish names have been corrupted with the English Conquest and later with the change here to English speech. Many others have been lost altogether. As a result, it is difficult today to discern the correct meanings of the old Irish placenames. But most of them can be explained by comparing the different spellings of them over the past few centuries. Below an effort is made to do this. First listed are the townland names alphabetically, followed by a rendering of the original Irish forms with the meanings in English. Next, other variant forms, found in the past, are given, including the only other sources to suggest meanings for the placenames. These were the Ordnance Survey Field Namebooks of the 1830’s, the little book by the Tyrone author, P. McAleer, Townland Names of County Tyrone, now out of print, updated, but written in the first decade of the 20th century and Parish of Kilskeery: The Place-Names Explained, by B. O'Daly; Clogher Record, Vol. 2, No. 1 (1957), pp. 71-96, Clogher Historical Society. Other placenames, in the townland, follow, with the Irish form and the meaning in English.”

The first list of Kilskerry Parishioners available is of those who paid the hearth tax in 1666. There were 67 hearths, when the parish population was only a few hundred at the most. It was a tax of 2 shillings on every hearth and fire-place.

Abbreviations of Sources used are as follows;  


  • TNCT: Townland Names of County Tryrone, by P. McAleer;
  • KPNE: Parish of Kilskeery. The Place-Names Explained, by B. O'Daly; Clogher Record, Vol. 2, No. 1 (1957), pp. 71-96, Clogher Historical Society, JSTOR http://www.jstor.org/stable/27695445
    • A.F.M. : Annals of the Four Masters.
    • A.U. : Annals of Ulster.
    • Arch. Hib. : Archivium Hibernicum, C.R.S.
    • C.P.R. : Calendar of Patent Rolls.
    • C.S.P. : Calendar of State Papers.
    • D.S. : Down Survey (sic), R.I.A., and P.R.O.B., c. 1661.
    • Inq. U. : Ulster Inquisitions.
    • M.E.C. : Maps of the Escheated Counties, c. 1609.
    • M.D. : Martyrology of Donegal.
    • M.T. : Martyrology of Tallaght.
    • M.H. : Monasticum Hibernicum, Archdall.
    • O.G. : Onomasticum Goedelicum, Hogan.
    • O.S. : Ordnance Survey.
    • P.R.O.B. : Public Record Office, Belfast.
    • P.R.O.D. : Public Record Office, Dublin.
    • R.C. : Register of Clogher.
    • R.I.A. : Royal Irish Academy.
    • S. & D. : Books of Survey and Distribution, Linenhall Library.U.P.P. : Ulster Plantation Papers, c. 1610.
  • ATW: ‘Around Trillick Way' published 1990 by Michael Mccaughey, presently out of print.
  • 1666: Hearth Money Rolls, 1666: Kilskerry townland names as in CR (1965), 385-6;
  • 1826: Tithe Applotment Rolls of Kilskerry parish, 1826
  • OSM-1834: “Ordnance Survey Memoirs of Ireland, Parishes of County Tyrone 1, 1821, 1823, 1831-36, North, West and South Tyrone”.
  • CEN: Census of Ireland, Co. Tyrone 1881; Part I; Area, Houses, and Population; Vol. III, Province of Ulster, No. 9 County of Tyrone
KILSKEERY – The Parish Name

Old Spellings: (KPNE)
1. Cill  Scire  (M.D.).
2. Cell Sgire (A.U.).
3. Kilskerrg (M.E.C, 1609).
4. Killskirry (D.S., 1661).
5. Kilskerrie alias
6. Killskerry (1666).
7. Kilskirry (S. & D., circa 1680).

Cill Scire: 'Church of (St.) Scire.'; The old ecclesiastical center, Kilskeery, which gives name to the Parish, is of great antiquity. It was the site of Kilskeery Monastery, founded in 749 A.D. (M.H.), and had a Bishop of its own, Cineadh, son of Ceallach, who died in 809 A.D. (A.U.). The Martyrologies of Tallaght and Donegal, preserve the form Cill-Scire; while the Annals of Ulster, completed and edited by Archdeacon O'Cassidy, a vicar of the Parish (died 1541), speak of "The parson of Cell Sgire Head of tribe or of hospitality."

(The) BRADE – The Barony Name (Obsolete)

Braghaid: 'Gorge' or 'Neck’, This name is anglicized Brad, Braid, Brade and Bractde. Literally meaning the gullet or windpipe, it is locally applied to a gorge or deeply-cut glen; and of this application, the river and valley of Kilskeery form a very characteristic example.

The Brade was one of the 'proportions, into which the Precinct of Omey (Omagh) was divided in the scheme of allotment to undertakers. It embraced the entire Parish of Kilskeery and portion of the Parish of Dromore. A. 'great proportion,' it consisted of 2,000 acres and 600 acres in Demesne (Castlemervyn), together with great patches of bog and wood land which were not counted in. (Hill, Plantation in Ulster).

(From ATW) “The Plantation Commission sat in Dungannon in 1608 and 1609 to carve up Tyrone…. They dealt with Tyrone as comprising four Baronies of Omagh. Clogher, Dungannon and Mountjoy, with the parish of Kilskerry, for centuries ruled by Clogher, now being included in the Barony of Omagh (Omey) What has been described in Plantation papers as “The Great Proportion of Brade” including all the estimated arable land of this parish, was given to Sir Meryvn Tuchet, the Earl of Castlehaven on 12 March, 1611. Although it was described as a “great proportion” and therefore taken to be around 2,000 acres of arable land, it was close to 30,000 acres. Many of the present townlands of Kilskerry parish were listed, along with much of Dromore parish. Considering that there were also church lands shown as Kilskerry, Corkhill, Glassmullagh, Shanmullan, Cabra, Mulnagork, Relagh, Drumgran, Golan, Killyblunk, Derryallen, Rosnareen, Liffer, Drumsonnus, Makeny and Carran, the amount allocated both planters and the established church were very much greater than what was shown on paper. At the time the “Lower Water” end of the parish contained vast tracts of moorland and forest, since reclaimed. In Pynnars Survey of 1614, carried out to see how the plantation had progressed, he reported that Castlehaven had let his lands extensively to Irish tenants and had not built his castle or town as required. Very few planters had arrived here at that stage. Casleehaven then assigned the territory to his cousin, Sir Henry Mervyn of Hampshire, Admiral of the Narrow Seas, who in turn passed it to his son, Captain James Mervyn. Arising from Pynnars Survey, Castlehaven was reprimanded for non-compliance with plantation undertaking, (in letting land to natives), the lands were formally again forfeited to the crown and officially reallocated to Captain James Mervyn and his heirs forever, on 1 June, 1630. The original Castlehaven was condemned for criminal activity and was sent to the Tower of London and executed on Tower Hill in 1631. The castle was built around 1628, Captain James Mervyn and his wife Elizabeth being the first to live there and the building of Trillick commenced around 1630. The purpose of the town was to house able-bodied men for protection of the castle and each house was to have a gun.

The “Lower Water” end, part of this parish for centuries, was from a time part of Derryvullen parish, but the Magheracross/Coa area, even up to 1860, were described as being in the parish of Magheracross, even though the plaque on the wall of Magherlough Church states that Father Francis McMahon was paster of Kilskerry and Coa for 21 years up to his death in 1828. The Coa Area was then to vacillate between neighboring Fermanagh parishes before returning to this parish in November 1972.
The townlands in the ecclesiastical, Catholic Parishes of the Clogher Diocese, changed over the centuries, and did not always agree with those of the civil parishes. The Ballinamallard end of the Coa area was granted to Sir Henery Folliot, at the plantation, but the most of the Coa area, Maguire’s royal mensal land, was a ready and safe haven for banished native landowners. Bryan Maguire having been given land there.”

The Townlands, in the “Lower Water” end of the parish are mentioned here, but not listed below, as part of Kilskerry parish. If you are looking for their civil records you will need to visit Co. Fermanagh. They include Bigh (Beagh), Cavavalough (Glebe), Cavantillycormack, Coa, Derryraghan, Killee, and Roscor.

AGHNALARGE

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Aghnilarge (D.S., 1661).
2. Aghnalarge alias
3. Aghnalurge (S. & D., c. 1680).

Ath - na-learg: 'Ford of the slopes, tracks.'  Etymologically, the first element in this name could be achadh, 'field'; but the presence of a ford disposes of this derivation. In fact, the old ford where Sir Phelim O'Neill routed the Planters in 1641 is still in evidence. Aghnalarge, as name of a townland, is now utterly unknown, having long since given way to Kilskeery, which, as name of a townland, was equally unnkown to the surveyors of 1661. The name itself, and the situation of the pre-Plantation Parish Church, are marked on the Down Survey map of 1654 : Upon Aghnalarge there standeth ye Church.' The Church, a small rectangular building, which was 'unroofed' in 1609 (M.H.), stood in the center of the old mixed graveyard at Kilskeery village. Very probably it was built on the site of Kilskeery Monastery, founded in 749 A.D. (M.H.).

BALLYARD

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. B:Arde (M.E.C, 1609).
2. Ballyard (U.P.P., 1610).
3. Bollard (D.S., 1661).
4. Ralliard (1666).
5. Bellard (S. & D., c. 1680).
6. Bollard alias

Buaile Ard: high milking place, Ballyard 1826, CEN, ATW. Herdsmen of the O’Neills as was the custom centuries ago, spent the non- winter months creighting or herding the cattle day and night on out-farms and Ballyard was a milking center (hence buaile – a milking place). The Harp Creamery was located here.

  •  Hearth Tax 1666: 1 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 14 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 24 Houses; Inhabitants 137
  • Census 1851: 18 Houses; Inhabitants 99
  • Census 1861: 19 Houses; Inhabitants 98
  • Census 1871: 17 Houses; Inhabitants 77
  • Census 1881: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 58

BODONEY

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Bodony (M.E.G, 1609).
2. Bodony (U.P.P., 1610).
3. Bodony (S. & D ., c. 1680).
4. Bodony  alias

Both Domhnaigh: Tent of the Church or Sunday Hut, Bodoney 1826, CEN, ATW. A stone quarry was located here. Crockalusky; Cnoc-a'-loiscthe: 'Burnt, or parched hill.’ Cnocknamuddy, Cnoc-na-mbodach: 'Hill of the serfs.' The b of bodach is rarely preserved intact; it is almost always aspirated as in cnoc a bhodaigh, or eclipsed, as here.

  •  Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 18 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 19 Houses; Inhabitants 100
  • Census 1851: 20 Houses; Inhabitants 87
  • Census 1861: 19 Houses; Inhabitants 109
  • Census 1871: 14 Houses; Inhabitants 87
  • Census 1881: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 66

BOHEE


Both -Aoidh / Aodha: ‘Aodh's hut.'

This was formerly a separate townland, but has been recorded as part of Badoney after the 1826 Tithe records. The first element in both names is the same, viz., both, 'a hut.' The second element is probably Aodh, interpreted by ancient authorities to mean 'fire,' -  'a fiery warrior.' The name Aodh is older than the earliest Irish colonists, for it was used amongst the Gauls in the time of Julius Caesar. It was the name of a great many of our ancient kings, and the Irish ecclesiastics named Aodh are almost innumerable. Amongst family names derived from it are Magee, Mackay, Hayes, Hughes, O'Hay, Mac Hugh. Bohee or Bohea KPNE, Bohee 1826.

  •  Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 6 agricultural holdings over one acre

BROCKAGH


Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Brakagh (S. & D., c. 1680).

Breachach: speckled land, Brockagh 1826, CEN, Brackagh ATW.

  •  Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 4 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 6 Houses; Inhabitants 31
  • Census 1851: 4 Houses; Inhabitants 20
  • Census 1861: 3 Houses; Inhabitants 15
  • Census 1871: 3 Houses; Inhabitants 16
  • Census 1881: 3 Houses; Inhabitants 15

CABRAGH


Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Krabagh (D.S., 1661).
2: Cabrragh alias
3. Cabragh (1666).
4. Crabbagh (S. & D., c. 1680).
5. Kabragh alias

Cabrach: rough unprofitable land, Cabragh 1666,CEN, Cabra 1826, ATW. There are remains of two forts located here, one more than 100 yards in diameter. Aughanure;  Ath-an-iubhair: 'Ford of the Yew tree.' Achadh, 'a field,' is possible as first element, but there is a river separating Aughanure from Roscor. Coolheaton; Cuil-aitinn: 'Corner of furze.' Derrylin, Doire- linne: 'Wood of the pool.' The Lees, An lias: 'the enclosure.' Or, Lighe, 'Bed or grave' (or lia, 'a stone '). Cabra fort,which is unusually well preserved, is situated within 'the Lees.' The -s in the modern spelling is the English plural symbol tacked to the Irish word, lighe, or lia. Swaney’s Hill, Cnoc-Samhna: 'Samhuin hill.’ place of assembly. The first of November was called Samhuin, which is commonly explained samh-fhuin, i.e., the end of samh, or summer; and, like Bealltaine, the first day of May, it was a day devoted by the Pagan Irish to religious and festive ceremonials. Sessiagh, Seiseadh: 'A sixth,' a measure of land.

 
  •  Hearth Tax 1666: 2 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 53 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 76 Houses; Inhabitants 430
  • Census 1851: 53 Houses; Inhabitants 296
  • Census 1861: 53 Houses; Inhabitants 247
  • Census 1871: 40 Houses; Inhabitants 186
  • Census 1881: 34 Houses; Inhabitants 181

CARRAN


Old spellings: (KPNE)

Carnuchy (M.E.C., 1609), The seventeenth century form 'Carnuchy 'is now obsolete, and there is no longer any trace of a cairn; but the elevation above 'Cam Lough’ known as 'Blocky hill,' a sub-denomination of this townland, was such a site as our pagan ancestors were wont to fancy as their final resting-place. The word earn, caran, carran, etc., is a diminutive of carr, meaning 'a rock,' or rocky land, a word not found in the dictionaries. Whenever the word cam forms the whole or part of a place-name we may be sure that a cairn existed to mark the grave of some person important in his day.
Cam Eochadha, 'Eochadh's cairn':  monumental heap of stones, also McCaughey’s Fort. Carron 1826, Carran CEN, ATW. Blockey Hill; Brocagh: 'Spotted place,' or 'Place of badgers, a badger warren.'

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 34 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 52 Houses; Inhabitants 259
  • Census 1851: 24 Houses; Inhabitants 127
  • Census 1861: 21 Houses; Inhabitants 106
  • Census 1871: 19 Houses; Inhabitants 84
  • Census 1881: 17 Houses; Inhabitants 75

CASTLE MERVYN DEMESNE

Old spellings: (KPNE)
Caldragh (Pre-plantation), Irish form Cealltrach: 'An old burial place’ (Derivative of cill,' a church ').

Caislean O Mavirimhin: Mervyn’s Castle, Castlemervyn 1826, ATW, Castlemervyn Demesne CEN, Edward Archdale is shown as having 150 acres, shooting lodge and herd’s house here in 1840. Mulnavaud, Maol-na-bhfuad: 'Hill of the robbers '; or, Maol-na-bhfod: 'Hill of the sods.'

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 7 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 54
  • Census 1851: 7 Houses; Inhabitants 30
  • Census 1861: 5 Houses; Inhabitants 28
  • Census 1871: 5 Houses; Inhabitants 27
  • Census 1881: 5 Houses; Inhabitants 20

CAVANAMARA

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Covanmarane (M.E.C., 1609).
2. Covanmarrane (U.P.P., 1610).
3. Cavanamara (1666).
4. Cavannamarra (S. & D., c. 1680).

Cabhan na marbh: 'Hollow of the dead.', Cavanamara 1666, CEN, ATW, Cavanamarrow 1826.  Cabhan means primarily 'a hollow' or ' cavity,' for it is cognate with the Latin cavea, French caban, and English cabin; but in some parts of Ulster it is understood to mean quite the reverse, viz.,'a round dry hill.' The extensive townland of Cavanamara has a large marshy patch at the southern end of the village of Trillick, which it contains, and another on the western side, as the sub-denomination Annagh (eanach, a marsh) implies. At the opposite end of the townland, in the vicinity of the famous 'Black Lion Inn,' there is further marsh, though mid-way there is the lofty hill, Slieveroe, Sliabh ruadh, ‘Red mountain.', marked 500 feet on the Ordnance Survey Map.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 2 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 61 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 38 Houses; Inhabitants 163
  • Census 1851: 31 Houses; Inhabitants 114
  • Census 1861: 19 Houses; Inhabitants 87
  • Census 1871: 18 Houses; Inhabitants 82
  • Census 1881: 14 Houses; Inhabitants 74

CLONCANDRA GLEBE

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Clancarragh (M.E.C, 1609).
2. Klonkeragh (1666).
3. Glankeragh (S. & D., 1680).

Cluaine ceann ratha: meadow of the head fort, Klonkeragh 1666, Cloncandra ATW, Cloncandra Glebe 1826,CEN. ‘Glebe’ signifying ‘Church Land” was added after the plantation.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 1 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 0 agricultural holdings over one acre (Church Lands did not owe a Tithe to the church)
  • Census 1841: 19 Houses; Inhabitants 97
  • Census 1851: 17 Houses; Inhabitants 80
  • Census 1861: 14 Houses; Inhabitants 63
  • Census 1871: 9 Houses; Inhabitants 37
  • Census 1881: 7 Houses; Inhabitants 29

COOLBACK

Old spellings: (KPNE)
None: This is a small pear-shaped townland. The absence of the name from the Plantation maps and documents suggests that originally it belonged to Scallan or Cabra, probably the former, since it is bounded on the Cabra side by a winding river, from which it takes name.

Cuil-baic: 'Corner' or ' Angle of the (river) bend.' (Baic, ‘twist' or 'crook’). Coolback 1826, CEN, ATW

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 6 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 11 Houses; Inhabitants 61
  • Census 1851: 6 Houses; Inhabitants 34
  • Census 1861: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 32
  • Census 1871: 9 Houses; Inhabitants 52
  • Census 1881: 9 Houses; Inhabitants 49

CORDROMEDY

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Corgromady (M.E.C, 1609).
2. Corgromady (U.P.R., 1610).
3. Cordrummond (1666).
4. Cordromada (S. & D., c. 1680).

Corr dhrom-fhada: 'Long-backed hill’, Here the last two elements are to be taken together as an adjective, dhrom-fhada, 'long-backed' (or the like); the initial d aspirated (fem.) is anglicized as a g-sound; hence -gromady, spellings 1. and 2. Cordromedy 1826, CEN, ATW

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 1 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 12 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 20 Houses; Inhabitants 108
  • Census 1851: 17 Houses; Inhabitants 75
  • Census 1861: 12 Houses; Inhabitants 58
  • Census 1871: 7 Houses; Inhabitants 36
  • Census 1881: 7 Houses; Inhabitants 35

CORKHILL

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Corkehill (D.S., 1661).
2. Corkhill alias
3. Corkill (1666).
4. Corkill (S. & D., c. 1680).

Corr-choill: 'Round wood.' Cork Hill 1826, Corkhill CEN,ATW. The first element in this name is the adjective corr, ‘round’ preceding the noun. Thus pronounced in English as Cor-khill, not Cork Hill. The Down Survey map of 1654 shows a church in this townland, quite near Kilskeery, presumably the first Protestant church at Kilskeery.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 1 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 13 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 19 Houses; Inhabitants 99
  • Census 1851: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 74
  • Census 1861: 12 Houses; Inhabitants 66
  • Census 1871: 11 Houses; Inhabitants 48
  • Census 1881: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 42

CORKRAGH

Old spellings: (KPNE)
Corcorragh (1666)

Corr-churrach: 'Round bog, or marsh.' Again, as in 'Corkhill,' the first element is the adjective corr, 'round.' The townland lies on either side of the Kilskeery river and is definitely marshy.  Corkraw 1826, Corkragh CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 1 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 17 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 56
  • Census 1851: 12 Houses; Inhabitants 43
  • Census 1861: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 35
  • Census 1871: 6 Houses; Inhabitants 24
  • Census 1881: 6 Houses; Inhabitants 18

CORLEA

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Corraleagh (D.S., 1661).
2. Corraleagh (S. & D., c. 1680).
3. Corraleght alias.

Currach liath: 'Grey marsh.', This townland lies around Magheralough and is for the greater part marshy. Corlea 1826, CEN. ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 13 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 75
  • Census 1851: 9 Houses; Inhabitants 33
  • Census 1861: 6 Houses; Inhabitants 29
  • Census 1871: 5 Houses; Inhabitants 29
  • Census 1881: 3 Houses; Inhabitants 17

CROSSAN

Old spellings:  (KPNE)
1. Crossan (1666).
2. Crossane (S. & D., c. 1680).
3. Crossans alias

Crosan: 'A little cross.' Crossan 1826, CEN, ATW.
This is the home of Hugh Cummiskey B1779, arrived Boston, Massachusetts, USA in 1818, died Lowel , Massacusetts, USA in 1871. Hugh controlled a group of Irish laborers that contracted to level the hills of Boston 1818-22 and build the canals and factories of Lowell and Lawrence Massachusetts 1822-1850’s. Any local men who wished to emigrate and work with Hugh Cummiskey in Boston or Lowell had first to visit the family cottage at Crossan and be checked for their suitability by members of the Cummiskey family. Perhaps assistance was given with the fare and the newly emigrated laborer was then to pay back that financial assistance through their work with Hugh in the USA. It was in this way that so many men from Dromore and Trillick with surnames such as McCosker, McLaughlin, McSorley and McQuaid made their way to Lowell. see https://www.qub.ac.uk/schools/CentreforArchaeologicalFieldworkCAF/PDFFileStore/Filetoupload,291767,en.pdf

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 1 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 20 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 29 Houses; Inhabitants 182
  • Census 1851: 31 Houses; Inhabitants 151 
  • Census 1861: 24 Houses; Inhabitants 110
  • Census 1871: 22 Houses; Inhabitants 97
  • Census 1881: 21 Houses; Inhabitants 74

DERNAGILLY

Old spellings: (KPNE)                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1. Derrinagell (M.E.C., 1609).
2. Derrina (S. & D., c. 1680).
3. Derryna alias

Doire na giall: 'Oakwood of the hostages’, It is believed locally that servants and herdsmen of the O’Neils and earlier lords of the castle area were located here, hence the name of the oakwood of the hostages or servants.  McAleer derives : Doire na giie,: 'Oakwood of brightness,’ and topographically the derivation is appropriate, for Tamnaghmore, Tamhnach mar, 'the big field,' and 'Woodhill,' two sub-denominations of Dernagilly, present a very bright prospect by reason of the long sedge they produce. Denis Gallagher had a school here in the 1850’s.  Dorney 1826, Dernagilly CEN, ATW. Annagh Hill; Eanach: 'Marsh.' The 'hill,' overlooking the marsh, forms the site of "Dernagilly House”.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 3 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 10 Houses; Inhabitants 65
  • Census 1851: 10 Houses; Inhabitants 62 
  • Census 1861: 4 Houses; Inhabitants 21
  • Census 1871: 3 Houses; Inhabitants 21
  • Census 1881: 2 Houses; Inhabitants 8

DERRYALLEN

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Derrylane (D.S., 1654).
2. Derrylane (S. & D., c. 1680).
3. Derralan alias

Doire (atha) leathain: 'Oakwood of the broad ford.'  While we cannot exclude the possibility of aluinn, ‘beautiful,' as the last element in this name, it is difficult to reconcile it with the early spellings. The latter suggest leathan, ‘broad,' which is very often shortened to lane in the North, e.g., Gortlane in Antrim, 'broad field,' and Lislane in Derry and Tyrone, 'broad fort.' This interpretation is strengthened by the fact that the Golan river has three broad fords where it forms the boundary between Derryallen and Relagh; and the stress on ath and leath- is almost equal. If we take account of the modern form merely, doire aluinn, 'beautiful oakwood,' is in accord with pronunciation and stress. There was a dispensary in Derryallen up to 1860. Derryallen 1826, CEN, ATW. Falskey, Fal-sceach: 'White thorn hedge ; often applied to the land enclosed by a fal.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 12 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 22 Houses; Inhabitants 99
  • Census 1851: 23 Houses; Inhabitants 104 
  • Census 1861: 20 Houses; Inhabitants 84
  • Census 1871: 12 Houses; Inhabitants 49
  • Census 1881: 9 Houses; Inhabitants 35

DERRYALLEN GLEBE

Not listed in KPNE or ATW, Included in Derryallen on the 1841 Census, became church (glebe) land between 1841-51. Derryallen Glebe CEN


  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 0 agricultural holdings over one acre (Church Lands did not owe a Tithe to the church)
  • Census 1841: Included in Derryallen
  • Census 1851: 2 Houses; Inhabitants 2
  • Census 1861: 1 Houses; Inhabitants 9
  • Census 1871: 1 Houses; Inhabitants 10
  • Census 1881: 1 Houses; Inhabitants 9

DERRY

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Derry (1666).
2. Doragh (S. & D., c. 1680).
3. Dorragh alias
4. Derrina alias
5. Derrinagha alias

Doire (an) atha: 'Oakwood of the ford.' KPNE; Doire: ‘an oak grove’ ATW,  This is only a remnant of the original name. Spellings 4. and 5. suggest doire (an) atha. The townland is bounded on one side by the Kilskeery river, and a weir is shown there on the Ordnance Survey map. Doire forms the first element of four other townland names in the Parish. Though primarily meaning 'oakwood,' not every doire was oak, as the peat bogs testify. It is one of the most prolific roots in Irish place-names, and thus furnishes evidence of the extent and location of former forest-land. Derry 1826, CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 1 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 10 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 68
  • Census 1851: 12 Houses; Inhabitants 60
  • Census 1861: 9 Houses; Inhabitants 50
  • Census 1871: 9 Houses; Inhabitants 42
  • Census 1881: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 45

DERRYLEA

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Derrileagh (M.E.C., 1609).
2. Derreleag (U.P.P., 1610).
3. Derrileagh (S. & D., c. 1680).

Doire liath: 'Grey oak grove.' Doralea 1826, Derrylea CEN, ATW. Carrick;  Carraig: 'A rock.'

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 13 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 12 Houses; Inhabitants 60
  • Census 1851: 11 Houses; Inhabitants 46
  • Census 1861: 10 Houses; Inhabitants 41
  • Census 1871: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 43
  • Census 1881: 5 Houses; Inhabitants 22

DERRYMACANNA

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Dery McKanan (M.E.C., 1609).
2. Dirrivickanen (U.P.P., 1610).
3. Derryvokenan (S. & D., 1680).
4. Derrevockennan alias


Doire Mhic Fhionnain: 'Mac Fhionnain's oakwood.' KPNR; Doire Mhic Chionaith: ‘McKernna’s oakwood’ ATW.
Mr. McAleer derives : Doire M'Cana: 'McCann's oak grove.' The surname 'McCann' is quite common in the Parish, too; but, paradoxically, the people pronounce 'Derrymacanna' as if written 'Derry Mac Kenna'! In other words, the local pronunciation accords with the old spellings. Mac Fhionnain is a Tyrone surname, and is here assimilated to Mac Kenna, a more common name. For the benefit of parishioners who are unfamiliar with Gaelic, it may be noted that m aspirated (mh) is sounded like v or w, and that Mhic is genitive of Mac, 'son.' Derrymacanna 1826, CEN, ATW. Barrenboy; Bearna bnidhe: 'Yellow gap,' or, more likely, Boireann bhuidhe: 'Yellow stony-place.' (pron. 'burren ').

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 8 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 62
  • Census 1851: 19 Houses; Inhabitants 48
  • Census 1861: 5 Houses; Inhabitants 30
  • Census 1871: 6 Houses; Inhabitants 24
  • Census 1881: 6 Houses; Inhabitants 41

DOOGARY

Old spellings: (KPNE)
Dugry (1666).

Dubh-doire: 'Black oakwood.'  This townland is largely cut-away bog, and was formerly covered with wood, which explains the second element. McAleer gives dubh-churrach, 'back marsh,' which is true enough to the terrain and to the sounds, but which is less likely because less common. This townland does not appear on the Plantation map of 1609, and would seem to have been originally part of Drumharvey. Doogery 1826, Doogary CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 2 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 23 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 25 Houses; Inhabitants 122
  • Census 1851: 22 Houses; Inhabitants 129
  • Census 1861: 18 Houses; Inhabitants 110
  • Census 1871: 19 Houses; Inhabitants 88
  • Census 1881: 18 Houses; Inhabitants 93

DREIGH

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Dreigh (M.E.C, 1609).
2. Dreagh (D.S., 1654) (1666).
3. Dreagh (S. & D.,  1680).

Dreach: 'Hill-face,' or 'brae.' Dreigh 1826, CEN. ATW. Carn Hill, Caen: 'A monumental heap of stones.'

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 2 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 19 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 22 Houses; Inhabitants 130
  • Census 1851: 16 Houses; Inhabitants 84
  • Census 1861: 15 Houses; Inhabitants 65
  • Census 1871: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 61
  • Census 1881: 10 Houses; Inhabitants 60

DRUMMARDNAGROSS

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Dromnagrosse (M.E.C, 1609).
2. Drominagough (U.P.P., 1610).
3. Drumherse (1666).                                                                                                                                                                                                                     4. Dromardnacrosse (S. & D., 1680

Druim ard na gcros: 'High ridge of the crosses. (Vide Crossan). Spelling 3. suggests Druim saoirse, a freehold townland. Druminardnagross 1826, Drumardnagross CEN, ATW

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 3 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 16 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 25 Houses; Inhabitants 134
  • Census 1851: 20 Houses; Inhabitants 101
  • Census 1861: 20 Houses; Inhabitants 88
  • Census 1871: 15 Houses; Inhabitants 57
  • Census 1881: 11 Houses; Inhabitants 48

DRUMASH

Old spellings: (KPNE)                                                                                                                                                                                                                     A small townland, it is not shown on the Plantation maps, and may have formed part of Corlea originally.
Druim-ais: 'Ridge of the marsh.' (ais: hill, fort, marshy ground).  This townland, like many others in the Parish, combines both hill and swamp. Drumash 1826, CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 6 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 75
  • Census 1851: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 61
  • Census 1861: 7 Houses; Inhabitants 50
  • Census 1871: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 40
  • Census 1881: 7 Houses; Inhabitants 40

DRUMBINNION

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Drumbinion (1666).
2. Drumbinon (S. & D., 1680).
3. Drumbinan alias

Druim-binnein (binneain): 'Ridge of the little peak.' Binnein is one of the diminutives of beann, 'a horn, peak,' or 'pointed hill'; but it is often applied, as in the present instance, to a steep hill. Drumbinnion 1826, CEN, Drumbinion ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 1 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 13 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 14 Houses; Inhabitants 96
  • Census 1851: 12 Houses; Inhabitants 82
  • Census 1861: 9 Houses; Inhabitants 61
  • Census 1871: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 50
  • Census 1881: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 40

DRUMDRAN

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1.. Drumdran (D.S., 1654).
2. Dromrane (S. & D., 1680).

Druim-dreann: 'Rough, scanty ridge.' In preferring the adjective dreann, to the noun drean, meaning 'wren,' as second element in this name, we write advisedly; for Joyce, in his Irish Names of Places states that ”Drumdran, the name of two townlands in Fermanagh and Tyrone, means 'the ridge of the wrens '." The derivation given is true to topography, for the unfruitful soil of Drumdran has evoked locally the unkind pseudonym 'clabar hill.' Drumdran 1826, CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 15 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 22 Houses; Inhabitants 116
  • Census 1851: 23 Houses; Inhabitants 124
  • Census 1861: 21 Houses; Inhabitants 107
  • Census 1871: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 70
  • Census 1881: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 63

DRUMHARVEY

Old spellings: (KPNE)
This name does not appear in any Plantation document.

Druim thairbheach: 'Profitable ridge.' (f aspirated (th) represents h in modern spelling). The second element must be classified as 'doubtful.' Mr. McAleer's derivation, 'Harvey's ridge,' is a pure guess.  Drumharvey 1826, CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 31 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 44 Houses; Inhabitants 257
  • Census 1851: 46 Houses; Inhabitants 224
  • Census 1861: 43 Houses; Inhabitants 207
  • Census 1871: 34 Houses; Inhabitants 182
  • Census 1881: 36 Houses; Inhabitants 170

DRUMSONNUS

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Drumsonnus (1666).
2. Drumsanes (S. & D., c. 1680).

Druim Samhna (s): 'Samhuin ridge 'or 'Ridge of assembly,  The great festival of Samhuin, instituted by Tuathal, king of Ireland in the first century, was celebrated on the first day of November at Tlachtga, in Meath; but minor festivities were observed on the same day in various places throughout the country. These meetings were usually held on hills. The Ordnance map shows two elevations of 300 feet in this townland, one in ’White Drumsonnus,' and one in 'Black Drumsonnus '; though there is no tradition of assembly. The name would appear to be the same as that of 'Sawney's hill,' a sub-denomination of the adjoining townland of Cabra. The final s of the modern name is the English plural. Mr. McAleer gives alternative derivations : druim sonnach(s) 'ridge of the ramparts,' which is possible; and druim sonais, 'ridge of prosperity,' which is improbable. This townland was list, on the Tithe records of 1826 as Drumsonas Johnston and Drumsonas Lendrum, after two land owners at the time. Drumsonnus CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 1 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: Drumsonas Johnston 11 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: Drumsonas Lendrum 16 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 41 Houses; Inhabitants 224
  • Census 1851: 33 Houses; Inhabitants 178
  • Census 1861: 26 Houses; Inhabitants 136
  • Census 1871: 23 Houses; Inhabitants 105
  • Census 1881: 19 Houses; Inhabitants 99

EFFERAN GLEBE

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Effernan (D.S. map, 1654).
2. Effrenan (1666).
3. Effernan (S. & D., c. 1680).

Aifrionnan: 'Place of the Mass’,  This townland was glebe land (church land), a fact which, taken with the name itself, led parishioners to conjecture that there had been a Mass-garden in the place. Such speculation is futile, however, for the name is certainly pre-Penal. Efferan Glebe 1826, CEN, Effernan ATW, KPNE.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 2 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 0 agricultural holdings over one acre (Church Lands did not owe a Tithe to the church)
  • Census 1841: 37 Houses; Inhabitants 203
  • Census 1851: 29 Houses; Inhabitants 153
  • Census 1861: 32 Houses; Inhabitants 166
  • Census 1871: 27 Houses; Inhabitants 135
  • Census 1881: 20 Houses; Inhabitants 90

FEGLISH


Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Fegglish (1666).
2. Figlash (S. & D., c. 1680).
3. Ffiglash alias

Fiodh-Ghlais: 'Wooded stream ' (fiodh, 'a tree, wood '). McAleer gives fiodh glas, 'green wood.' One of the first schools in the parish operated here in the early 1800’s. A multi-denominational school under Protestant management and with a Catholic principal operated here for close to 150 years. Fegliss 1826, Feglish CEN, ATW. Lisnagore, Lios-na-ngabhar: 'Fort of the goats.'

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 3 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 16 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 27 Houses; Inhabitants 139
  • Census 1851: 17 Houses; Inhabitants 85
  • Census 1861: 12 Houses; Inhabitants 63
  • Census 1871: 12 Houses; Inhabitants 53
  • Census 1881: 11 Houses; Inhabitants 49

FERNEY

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Ferny (1666).
2. Ferney (S. & D... c. 1680).

Fearn - mhaigh: 'Alder - plain.' A school in Ferney in the late 1850’s was replaced by Drumharvey, in turn replaced by Feglish. School master in Ferney hanged himself in the 1850’s. Fairney 1826, Ferney CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 3 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 21 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 32 Houses; Inhabitants 207
  • Census 1851: 28 Houses; Inhabitants 155
  • Census 1861: 26 Houses; Inhabitants 136
  • Census 1871: 21 Houses; Inhabitants 108
  • Census 1881: 21 Houses; Inhabitants 130

GARGADIS

We have failed to get any authoritative opinion on this name, which does not appear in any Plantation document. (KPNE)
McAleer hazarded garradh-gadaidhe, 'Garden frequented by thieves,' where the final s of the modern name would be the English plural symbol. There is a fort in the townland called 'Girgaddis fort.' Girgaddis KPNE, Gargadoes 1826, Gargadis CEN, Girgadis ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 9 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 22 Houses; Inhabitants 106
  • Census 1851: 18 Houses; Inhabitants 96
  • Census 1861: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 73
  • Census 1871: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 78
  • Census 1881: 12 Houses; Inhabitants 58

GARVAGHY

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Gravon (U.P.P., 1610).
2. Grauagho (S. & D., c. 1680).
3. Gravagho alias

Garbh –achadh: 'Rough field.’ The first element gra, common to all spellings, provides a good example of metathesis of gar(bh), which is quite common. The second syllable is heavily stressed thus indicating achadh as derivation. Garvaghey 1826, Garvaghy CEN, ATW. Glassdromon, Old spelling: Glasdrom (M.E.C, 1609). Glas-dromainn: 'Green ridge.'

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 6 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 17 Houses; Inhabitants 94
  • Census 1851: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 55
  • Census 1861: 11 Houses; Inhabitants 49
  • Census 1871: 12 Houses; Inhabitants 48
  • Census 1881: 9 Houses; Inhabitants 47

GLASSMULLAGH NORTH and SOUTH

spellings: (KPNE)
1. Glaswollagh (M.E.C, 1609).
2. Glaswollagh (U.P.R., 1610).
3. Glassmullagh (1666).
4. Glasmullagh (S. & D., 1680).

Glas - mhullagh: 'Green summit.’ Glasmullagh (one ‘s’)1826,  corresponds to Glassmullagh North CEN, ATW. Glassmullagh (two ‘s’) corresponds to Glassmullagh South CEN, ATW. Drumcrow, (Glassmullagh South), Druim cruaidh: 'Hard or difficult hill." Cro, 'huts' is possible; the druim is marked 400 feet. Slieveroe, (Glassmullagh North) Sliabh ruadh, ‘Red mountain.', marked 500 feet on the Ordnance Survey Map.

  •  Hearth Tax 1666: 3 tax payers/Hearths

GLASSMULLAGH NORTH

  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 39 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 9 Houses; Inhabitants 55
  • Census 1851: 9 Houses; Inhabitants 53
  • Census 1861: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 35
  • Census 1871: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 40
  • Census 1881: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 46

GLASSMULLAGH SOUTH

  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 7 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 6 Houses; Inhabitants 32
  • Census 1851: 3 Houses; Inhabitants 23
  • Census 1861: 3 Houses; Inhabitants 19
  • Census 1871: 3 Houses; Inhabitants 11
  • Census 1881: 3 Houses; Inhabitants 11

GOLAN GLEBE

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Goulan (M.E.C, 1609).
2. Goland (S. & D., c. 1680).

A. Gabhlan: 'Little river-fork' (dim. of gabhal, 'a fork ').
B. Gualainn: 'A shoulder, a hill.'
Golan Glebe, one of the largest townlands in the Parish, has two parts, 'Uppertown' (Crocknacarta, Cnoc-na-ceardcha: 'Hill of the smithy.'), and 'Undertown' (Crockfada, Cnoc fada: 'Long hill.’). It is bounded on its western side by the Golan river, which takes on a small tributary near Golan bridge. The fork thus formed probably accounts for the name (A). We cannot, however, exclude the possibility of gualainn, shoulder,' which is often applied to a hill, as derivation, especially since Golan has two cnuic. Golan KPNE, ATW. Golan Glebe 1826, CEN.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 0 agricultural holdings over one acre (Church Lands did not owe a Tithe to the church)
  • Census 1841: 24 Houses; Inhabitants 140
  • Census 1851: 23 Houses; Inhabitants 148
  • Census 1861: 21 Houses; Inhabitants 127
  • Census 1871: 24 Houses; Inhabitants 133
  • Census 1881: 24 Houses; Inhabitants 130

GREENAN

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Granan (M.E.C, 1609).
2. Granan (1666).
3. Grenan (S. & D., c. 1680).
4. Grennan alias
5. Greenan (O.S. map, P.R.O.B.).

Greanan: 'A gravelly place.' Everyone takes the modern 'Greenan," everywhere, to be 'Grianan,' 'a sunny place,' and Mr. McAleer was no exception in the present instance. There is, however, another Irish word which may be either greanan or grianan, derived from grean / grian (Dinneen), which means 'gravelly place’. It is obvious that grian, 'sun,' would hardly give grann. The local pronunciation of the present name accords with the modern and earlier spellings. Moreover, the townland is bounded on the North and West by a river with five fords, and is geologically 'gravelly,’ especially at the fords. Terance McQuaide had a hedge school here in the 1850’s, first in Killyblunick and later in Nixon’s field in Grannan. Grannan 1826, KPNE, ATW; Greenan CEN.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 2 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 19 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 16 Houses; Inhabitants 103
  • Census 1851: 16 Houses; Inhabitants 88
  • Census 1861: 14 Houses; Inhabitants 74
  • Census 1871: 14 Houses; Inhabitants 72
  • Census 1881: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 71

HACKINCON

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Hankincon (S. & D., c. 1680).
2. Hamkincon alias.

Ath (an)-cinn-chon: 'Ford of the hound's head.' It is often difficult to distinguish between ath, 'a ford' and achadh, 'a field' ; and Mr. McAleer, who was evidently unfamiliar with the topography of the Parish, and probably had no old spellings before him, was mistaken in deriving this name achadh an chon, 'hound's habitation.' The golden key to the correct derivation is the river which separates this townland from Girgaddis, passing under Ballinapaste and Stranagomer bridges on its way to Magheralough. The presence of a river strongly suggests ath as the first element in the name. The initial h is a purely English development which goes back, however, to the seventeenth century. It may be compared to the notorious 'cockney’ 'h' that is prefixed to initial vowels, e.g. 'Hireland' for Ireland. The second element, cinn, gen. of ceann, 'a head,' anglicized kin, and so called from some peculiarity of shape. Hackincon 1826, CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 14 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 14 Houses; Inhabitants 92
  • Census 1851: 6 Houses; Inhabitants 36
  • Census 1861: 6 Houses; Inhabitants 40
  • Census 1871: 6 Houses; Inhabitants 31
  • Census 1881: 5 Houses; Inhabitants 21

KEENOGUE

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Cynoge (M.E.C., 1609).
2. Cynoge (U.P.P., 1610).
3. Kennage (C.S., 1661, P.R.O.D.).
4. Kynoge (1666.).
5. Kenage (S. &  D., c. 1680

Caonog: ' A mossy place.' (Dim. of Caonach, anglicised ‘Keenagh '). Keenogue 1826, CEN, ATW. Ballinapaste; Beal-atha-na-peiste: 'Ford-mouth of the serpent, fish,' or other strange animal.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 4 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 19 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 22 Houses; Inhabitants 124
  • Census 1851: 18 Houses; Inhabitants 76
  • Census 1861: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 71
  • Census 1871: 11 Houses; Inhabitants 48
  • Census 1881: 9 Houses; Inhabitants 43

KILKNOCK

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Keile - Iknock (U.P.P., 1610).
2. Killknock (D.S., 1654).                                                                                                                                                                                                                 3. Kiblonock (1666).
4. Kilnock (S. & D., c. 1680).

Coill- a chnuic, 'Wood of (on) the hill.' (Spelling 1.). There is a cairn and old graveyard in this townland. Kilnock 1826, KPNE, ATW; Kilknock CEN

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 2 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 12 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 21 Houses; Inhabitants 125
  • Census 1851: 19 Houses; Inhabitants 100
  • Census 1861: 14 Houses; Inhabitants 83
  • Census 1871: 15 Houses; Inhabitants 61
  • Census 1881: 15 Houses; Inhabitants 64

KILLYBLUNICK GLEBE

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Kiltiblonage (M.E.C., 1609).
2. Killblonock (1666).
3. Kilbonk (S. & D., c. 1680).
4. Kilbonok alias

Coillidh-blonoige: 'Wood of the lard' (coillidh, old dat., new nom.). It may well be asked why were places named from lard? Perhaps such names indicate that pigs were fattened in the respective places. Joyce states that 'in early times when woods of oak and beech abounded in this country, it was customary for kings and chieftains to keep great herds of swine, which fed in the woods on masts, and were tended by swineherds.' Killyblunick, like Golan, Effernan, Cloncandra and Derryallen were all mountain glebe, escheated in the great robbery of 1610. Killyblunick KPNE, ATW; Killyblunick Glebe 18726, CEN.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 0 agricultural holdings over one acre (Church Lands did not owe a Tithe to the church)
  • Census 1841: 24 Houses; Inhabitants 137
  • Census 1851: 22 Houses; Inhabitants 135
  • Census 1861: 21 Houses; Inhabitants 112
  • Census 1871: 20 Houses; Inhabitants 113
  • Census 1881: 19 Houses; Inhabitants 81

KILLYFUDDY

Old spellings: (KPNE);  This name does not appear in any Plantation document. Probably, as wood-land, it did not rank as a townland until it was reclaimed.

Coillidh – fadoidh (?): 'Wood of Kindling' (clearing wood-land by fire). The second element is doubtful. Killyfuddy 1826, CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 12 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 73
  • Census 1851: 14 Houses; Inhabitants 58
  • Census 1861: 12 Houses; Inhabitants 51
  • Census 1871: 11 Houses; Inhabitants 54
  • Census 1881: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 54

KILLYMENDON

Old spellings: (KPNE);  This name does not appear in any Plantation document. Probably, as wood-land, it did not rank as a townland until it was reclaimed.

Coillidh -m eannt?nn: 'Wood of titmice,' or 'of snipe.'KPNE; Coill lli Mhiachain: Macken’s Wood. ATW. Killymitten ATW, Killymendon 1826, CEN. Dorney, Doirineach: 'Place of the little copse.' (doirin, a little doirej. Drolan, Drolan: 'Place of windings,' probably of the Dorney river. Drumkelly, Druim-Ceallaigh: 'Ceallach's ridge.'

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 19 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 24 Houses; Inhabitants 131
  • Census 1851: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 87
  • Census 1861: 14 Houses; Inhabitants 75
  • Census 1871: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 59
  • Census 1881: 10 Houses; Inhabitants 57

KILSKERRY GLEBE

Old Spellings: (KPNE)                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Cill  Scire  (M.D.).
2. Cell Sgire (A.U.).
3. Kilskerrg (M.E.C, 1609).
4. Killskirry (D.S., 1661).
5. Kilskerrie alias                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6. Killskerry (1666).
7. Kilskirry (S. & D., circ 1680).  

Cill Scire: 'Church of (St.) Scire.'; The old ecclesiastical centre, Kilskeery, which gives name to the Parish, is of great antiquity. It was the site of Kilskeery Monastery, founded in 749 A.D. (M.H.), and had a Bishop of its own, Cineadh, son of Ceallach, who died in 809 A.D. (A.U.). The Martyrologies of Tallaght and Donegal, preserve the form Cill-Scire; while the Annals of Ulster, completed and edited by Archdeacon O'Cassidy, a vicar of the Parish (died 1541), speak of "The parson of Cell Sgire Head of tribe or of hospitality." “Little is known as to what pre-plantation clergy were here. It is believed that the McQuaides of Mulnagork, who were erenachs at Kilskerry provided some of the local clergy who served the church here up to the 1550's. One of the McQuaides referred to in the Annals (of Ulster) is Hugh McQuaide, vicar and erenach of Kilskerry,who died in 1536. The Annals say he was "the parson of Kilskerry, head of tribe, or of hospitality, spacious is the floor of his house, head preceptor of all clergy." Kilskerry KPNE, ATW, Kilskerry Glebe 1826, CEN.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 1 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 0 agricultural holdings over one acre (Church Lands did not owe a Tithe to the church)
  • Census 1841: 19 Houses; Inhabitants 94
  • Census 1851: 16 Houses; Inhabitants 66
  • Census 1861: 16 Houses; Inhabitants 69
  • Census 1871: 11 Houses; Inhabitants 47 
  • Census 1881: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 52

KININE

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Kineyn (M.E.C, 1609).
2. Kyneyn (U.P.P., 1610).
3. Keanyne (S. & D., c. 1680).

Ceann-eidhinn: 'Ivy hill' (eidhean, 'ivy '); Kinnine KPNE, Kinine 1826, CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 5 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 39 Houses; Inhabitants 224
  • Census 1851: 30 Houses; Inhabitants 167
  • Census 1861: 27 Houses; Inhabitants 139
  • Census 1871: 28 Houses; Inhabitants 150 
  • Census 1881: 29 Houses; Inhabitants 129

KNOCKNAGOR

Old spellings: (KPNE);  This name does not appear in any Plantation document, and suggests that the present name is comparatively modern.

A. Cnoc- na-gcorr: 'Hill of the cranes.'
B. Cnocan - O –gCorra: 'O'Corrs' hill.'
This name, which appears easy of analysis at first sight, has proved to be a veritable double entendre. Etymologically, one inclines to corr, 'a heron or crane' as the second element. This word is used extensively in forming names, and appears in 'Roscor,' 'point of cranes,' another townland “Lower Water” end of the parish. The Kncknagor district is quite marshy, too, and might well be regarded as a favorite haunt of these birds. Some of the older generation, however, favor gabhar,,a goat’,’ as the second element. This derivation, however, is contrary both to pronunciation and spelling. The word gabhar, when anglicized, generally takes the form gore, gower, or gour. As a fact, there is a fort called Lisnagore, fort of the goats,' situated on the very borders of Knocknagor. Sheanchies of the district, maintained that ‘long ago' there were several families named 'Corr’ resident in the district, and that the townland was called 'after them.'  There is a 'Corrs' bridge in the townland.' By reference to the Tithe Applotment of the Parish, dated 1826, we find that of the eleven occupiers in Knocknagor, four were named 'Corr.’ Knocknagor 1826, CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 11 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 75
  • Census 1851: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 65
  • Census 1861: 10 Houses; Inhabitants 45
  • Census 1871: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 31 
  • Census 1881: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 30

LIFFORD

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Letterd (1666).
2. Liffer (S. & D., c. 1680).

Leith – bhear: 'Half water.' (bior, water).  This townland consists of a steep hillside with a marshy bottom containing innumerable springs, one of which is a Chalybeate spa, and is bounded on its southern side by the Kilskeery river which has it source in the vicinity. There is certainly sufficient water to justify the word bior. In Kilskeery, the name is generally pronounced and written "Liffer," though occasionally assimilated with the more familiar "Lifford." In spelling 1. the double t is probably a misreading of t for f. Lifford 1826, CEN. Liffer ATW, KPNE. Crockor, Cnoc corr: 'Rounded hill' (corr, 'round'; adj.) The Ordnance Survey map marks this cnoc by 700 feet contour lines. Crockfada, Cnoc fada: 'Long hill.’ Crocknaboortan,  Cnoc-na-bpuirtin: 'Hill of the little banks.' (porf, a bank). This sub-denomination is bounded by the Kilskeery river which takes its rise in the vicinity. Crocknamona, Cnoc-na-mona: 'Hill of the turf.' Meencrim, Min-crom: 'Sloping mountain flat.'

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 1 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 26 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 38 Houses; Inhabitants 211
  • Census 1851: 38 Houses; Inhabitants 199
  • Census 1861: 34 Houses; Inhabitants 161
  • Census 1871: 28 Houses; Inhabitants 150 
  • Census 1881: 32 Houses; Inhabitants 144

LISDOO

Old spellings:
1. Letterd (1666).

Lios Dubh: ‘Black fort’ ATW. Lisdoo was not listed as a townland in KPNE, most likely in error. Lisdoo 1826, CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 10 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 16 Houses; Inhabitants 102
  • Census 1851: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 86
  • Census 1861: 12 Houses; Inhabitants 63
  • Census 1871: 11 Houses; Inhabitants 58 
  • Census 1881: 11 Houses; Inhabitants 55

LISNAHANNA

Old spellings: (KPNE)                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1. Lisnahannen (U.P.P., 1610).
2. Lissnahannea (D.S., 1661).
3. Lisnahamea alias
4. Lishnahanna (1666).
5. Lisnahanna (S. & D., c. 1680).

Lios -na -h-aine: 'Fort of pleasure, or delight.' The form ‘na h-‘, common to all spellings, points to a feminine noun in the genitive singular, as final element in this name. The lios is still in evidence near Lisnahanna cross-roads, and an Orange hall commemorates the former Fair where ‘thronged the brave and bright.’ Lisnahanna 1826, CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 2 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 8 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 14 Houses; Inhabitants 92
  • Census 1851: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 77
  • Census 1861: 14 Houses; Inhabitants 62
  • Census 1871: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 58 
  • Census 1881: 12 Houses; Inhabitants 72

LOUGHTERUSH

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Lagh frish (M.E.C., 1609).
2. Laghirish (U.P.P., 1610).
3. Laghterrish (D.S., 1661).
4. Laghterish (S. & D., c. 1680).

Leacht an ruis: 'Flagstone of the headland.' The f of frish in 1. is a misreading for t. Leacht, 'a flagstone,' like cairn, is often applied to a monumental heap of stones. In the North of Ireland, the guttural is universally suppressed, and the word is pronounced lat or let. There are standing stones on the borders of this townland. Loughterush 1826, CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 21 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 20 Houses; Inhabitants 131
  • Census 1851: 16 Houses; Inhabitants 100
  • Census 1861: 14 Houses; Inhabitants 91
  • Census 1871: 15 Houses; Inhabitants 88 
  • Census 1881: 15 Houses; Inhabitants 82

MAGHERALOUGH

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Mahery lagha (M.E.C. 1609).
2. Magherrlogh (D.S., 1661).
3. Maghrilogh (1666).
4. Magherelogh (S. & D., c. 1680).
5. Magherrylogh alias

Machaire-locha: 'Plain of the lake.’ The Parish Church of St. Macarten is popularly called after this name, by reason of its proximity to the picturesque lake with cranog. The Church is situated in the townland of Stranagomer. Magheralough 1826, CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 2 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 17 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 22 Houses; Inhabitants 88
  • Census 1851: 17 Houses; Inhabitants 66
  • Census 1861: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 64
  • Census 1871: 14 Houses; Inhabitants 69 
  • Census 1881: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 58

MAKENNY

Old spellings: (KPNE)                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1. Markin (1666)

Meacanach: 'Parsnip - producing land.' The first syllable of the name is heavily stressed and sounded long (as in the English 'make'). In the absence of evidence, meacanach, one of the adjectival forms of the word meacan, 'parsnip,' seems to approximate nearest to the pronunciation. Makeny ATW, Makenny 1826, CEN . Sessiagh, Seiseadh: 'A sixth,' a measure of land.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 4 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 35 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 60 Houses; Inhabitants 365
  • Census 1851: 53 Houses; Inhabitants 279
  • Census 1861: 50 Houses; Inhabitants 248
  • Census 1871: 47 Houses; Inhabitants 235
  • Census 1881: 46 Houses; Inhabitants 221


MEELTOGUES

Old spellings: (KPNE);  This name does not appear in any Plantation document. Probably, as wet-land, it did not rank as a townland until it was reclaimed.

Mioltogach: 'place of midges.' The final s in the modern form is the English plural -s. Miol denotes any kind of animal, different species being designated by means of qualifying terms. The diminutive mioltog is the usual word for a midge; and this term is pretty general in names, always indicating a place where, in favorable weather, there are swarms of midges. Midges are a group of insects that include many kinds of small flies. The townland is swampy. Meltogues 1826, ATW, KPNE. Meeltogues CEN.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 7 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 11 Houses; Inhabitants 62
  • Census 1851: 11 Houses; Inhabitants 59
  • Census 1861: 9 Houses; Inhabitants 42
  • Census 1871: 9 Houses; Inhabitants 50 
  • Census 1881: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 48

MONEYGAR

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Mongare (M.E.C., 1609).
2. Monegare (U.P.P., 1610).
3. Monigarr (1666).
5. Monygar alias.

Muine ghearr: 'Short shrubbery.' Monegar KPNE, Moneygar 1826, CEN, ATW. Crockclampa, Cnoc-clampa: 'Hill of turf clamps' (ciampa, gen. plu.). Crockroe, Cnoc ruadh: 'Red hill.'

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 1 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 23 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 36 Houses; Inhabitants 187
  • Census 1851: 37 Houses; Inhabitants 169
  • Census 1861: 29 Houses; Inhabitants 160
  • Census 1871: 27 Houses; Inhabitants 138 
  • Census 1881: 23 Houses; Inhabitants 101

MOORFIELD

Old spellings: (KPNE); This is the only townland in the Parish bearing an English name. An Ordnance Survey list of names of the Parish, preserved in the Public Record Office, Dublin, shows Gort - mona bracketted after 'Moorefield.' It is evidently a translation.

Gort - mona: 'moor/turf field’, Moorefield KPNE, ATW, Moorfield 1826, CEN.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 29 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 36 Houses; Inhabitants 227
  • Census 1851: 30 Houses; Inhabitants 163
  • Census 1861: 27 Houses; Inhabitants 135
  • Census 1871: 26 Houses; Inhabitants 127 
  • Census 1881: 17 Houses; Inhabitants 91

MULNAGORK

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Mullenagorka (S. & D., c. 1680).
2. Mollenagorka alias

Maolan -na-gcorcach: 'Hill-summit of the marshes.' Maoldn is a diminutive of Maol, meaning 'a hill, hillock, or headland.' The syllable missing in the modern form is retained in pronunciation. The name describes accurately the topography of the townland. This townland was church land. “Little is known as to what pre-plantation clergy were here. It is believed that the McQuaides of Mulnagork, who were erenachs at Kilskerry provided some of the local clergy who served the church here up to the 1550's. One of the McQuaides referred to in the Annals (of Ulster) is Hugh McQuaide, vicar and erenach of Kilskerry,who died in 1536. The Annals say he was "the parson of Kilskerry, head of tribe, or of hospitality, spacious is the floor of his house, head preceptor of all clergy." Mulnagork 1826, CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 0 agricultural holdings over one acre (Church Lands did not owe a Tithe to the church)
  • Census 1841: 9 Houses; Inhabitants 46
  • Census 1851: 7 Houses; Inhabitants 39
  • Census 1861: 6 Houses; Inhabitants 33
  • Census 1871: 7 Houses; Inhabitants 32 
  • Census 1881: 6 Houses; Inhabitants 30

REALTONS

Old spellings: (KPNE);  This name does not appear in any Plantation document, and suggests that the present name is comparatively modern.

Reidh-altain: 'Smooth hillocks.' (-s in modern form Eng. plu.). Realtons 1826, CEN, ATW. Lough Mulshane, Loch -maoil - sidheain: 'Lake of the hill of the fairy mound.'

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 10 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 12 Houses; Inhabitants 66
  • Census 1851: 12 Houses; Inhabitants 63
  • Census 1861: 14 Houses; Inhabitants 63
  • Census 1871: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 41 
  • Census 1881: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 37

RELAGH

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Reylagh (D.S., 1654).
2. Rylagh (1666).
3. Reylagh (S. & D., c. 1680).

Railgheach: 'Place of big oaks.', Relagh-Carlin KPNE, Carlin is probably equivalent of O'Cerbhallain, genitive O’Cerbhallan, a surname used to distinguish this townland from Relaghgunnus. There is an extensive peat bog in this townland, still in use and bearing evidence of former forest. Ralagh 1826, CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 2 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 20 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 30 Houses; Inhabitants 158
  • Census 1851: 22 Houses; Inhabitants 95
  • Census 1861: 21 Houses; Inhabitants 99
  • Census 1871: 15 Houses; Inhabitants 68 
  • Census 1881: 12 Houses; Inhabitants 40

RELAGH GUINNESS

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Reylagh (D.S., 1654).
2. Rylagh (1666).
3. Reylagh (S. & D., c. 1680).

Railgheach - gineadha: 'productive land abounding in oak.' The townland is situated between Bundoran Junction and Irvinestown, a part of the Parish that was forest-land at the time of the Plantation and for ages previously. The greater half of the townland, lying north of Relagh Lough, is still known as 'Woodhill.' Relaghgunnus KPNE, Relaghgunnis ATW, Releigh Gunness 1826, Relagh Guinness CEN. Crockrawer, Cnoc reamhar: 'Thick hill.' M aspirated (mh), in the second element, is often represented by v.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 34 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 37 Houses; Inhabitants 228
  • Census 1851: 27 Houses; Inhabitants 147
  • Census 1861: 24 Houses; Inhabitants 113
  • Census 1871: 21 Houses; Inhabitants 107
  • Census 1881: 22 Houses; Inhabitants 99

ROSSNAREEN

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Rossnarine (M.E.C, 1609).
2. Rossnorin (U.P.P., 1610).

Ros-na-raon: 'Headland, or wood of the tracks' (raon, 'track, path, route’). Rusnareene 1826, Rossnareen CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 15 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 19 Houses; Inhabitants 110
  • Census 1851: 18 Houses; Inhabitants 96
  • Census 1861: 17 Houses; Inhabitants 100
  • Census 1871: 19 Houses; Inhabitants 96
  • Census 1881: 15 Houses; Inhabitants 64

SCALLEN

Old spellings: (KPNE)
Scallan (1666)

Scathlann: 'Shed, or hut.' No tradition of Mass. Scallan KPNE, Scallon 1826, ATW, Scallen CEN.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 2 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 15 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 28 Houses; Inhabitants 156
  • Census 1851: 24 Houses; Inhabitants 128
  • Census 1861: 19 Houses; Inhabitants 101
  • Census 1871: 15 Houses; Inhabitants 88
  • Census 1881: 13 Houses; Inhabitants 73

SCREEBY

Old spellings: (KPNE);  This name does not appear in any Plantation document, and suggests that the present name is comparatively modern.

Screabach: 'Scraped land.' This derivation accords best with the local pronounciation, "Scrabby"; but scriobach, 'land furrowed by mountain torrents,' means much the same. Scraby 1826, Screeby CEN, ATW. The Bonnett, Buannat: 'Little lasting one,' i.e., river. This, and another form, buanaid, signify 'lasting river,’ for the Irish seem to have been fond of applying the word buan, 'lasting,' to rivers.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 18 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 24 Houses; Inhabitants 128
  • Census 1851: 20 Houses; Inhabitants 112
  • Census 1861: 17 Houses; Inhabitants 92
  • Census 1871: 17 Houses; Inhabitants 72
  • Census 1881: 15 Houses; Inhabitants 69

SHANMULLAGH EAST

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Shanemullagh (C.S., 1651).
2. Shanmullagh (D.S., 1654).
3. Shanmullagh (S. & D., c. 1680).
4. Shanemullagh alias

Sean-mhullagh: 'Old hilltop.' Shanmulla KPNE, Shanmullagh East was church land. Shanmullagh East CEN, ATW. Ballinaboy; Beal-an-atha-buidhe: 'Mouth of the yellow ford.' Leakagh was located within Shanmullagh East.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 1 tax payers/Hearths Recorded under Leakagh.
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 0 agricultural holdings over one acre (Church Lands did not owe a Tithe to the church)
    • Census 1841: 20 Houses; Inhabitants 140
    • Census 1851: 18 Houses; Inhabitants 119
    • Census 1861: 19 Houses; Inhabitants 107
    • Census 1871: 16 Houses; Inhabitants 88
    • Census 1881: 16 Houses; Inhabitants 94

SHANMULLAGH WEST

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Shanemullagh (C.S., 1651).
2. Shanmullagh (D.S., 1654).
3. Shanmullagh (S. & D., c. 1680).
4. Shanemullagh alias

Sean-mhullagh: 'Old hilltop.' Shanmulla KPNE, Shanmullagh 1826, Shanmullagh West CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 6 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 42 Houses; Inhabitants 269
  • Census 1851: 29 Houses; Inhabitants 190
  • Census 1861: 31 Houses; Inhabitants 182
  • Census 1871: 27 Houses; Inhabitants 167
  • Census 1881: 16 Houses; Inhabitants 159

STRALONGFORD

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Shraghloughart (U.P.P., 1610).
2. Strawlongort (C.S., 1661).
3. Strawlongort alias
4. Strowlongart (S. & D., c. 1680).

Srath-longphuirt ; 'River-bank, or holm of the fortress, or embankment.' Srath is generally applied to the soft meadow-land, or holm, along the banks of a river. The insertion of a t between the s and the r is simply an expedient, in accordance with a well known euphonic law, to avoid the awkward combination sr. Under the influence of this corruption also, the simple word becomes sfraw, as here (2., 3., and 4.), and in the following place-name. Longphort, a term originally applied to those places where, the Norsemen beached their boats, signifies 'a fortress, or encampment.' The word was applied both to the old circular entrenched forts and to the more modern stone castles. Only the outline of the old castle here for Castletown estate now remains, lands of the estate were sold to tenants in 1897.  Stralongford 1826, CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 12 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 40 Houses; Inhabitants 234
  • Census 1851: 37 Houses; Inhabitants 202
  • Census 1861: 29 Houses; Inhabitants 138
  • Census 1871: 26 Houses; Inhabitants 117
  • Census 1881: 25 Houses; Inhabitants 118

STRANAGUMMER

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Shraneconor (M.E.C., 1609).
2. Strawmagomer (D.S., 1654).
3. Strawmagomer (C.S., 1661).
4. Stram' -gomer (1666).
5. Strawmagomer (S. & D., c. 1680).

Srath na gcomar: 'Holm of the confluences.' The meeting of the waters is only a few perches up stream from St. Macarten's Church. The Church has the almost unique distinction in this country of being built on a river bank. The river is a lazy serpent that coils and noses its way around 'Millbank," pursues its course exquisitely towards Trillick, changes its mind, turns back towards Magheralough, and finally loses itself in the sacred waters of Lough Erne. Stranagomer 1826, Stranagummer CEN, ATW. Ednagee Hill, Old spelling: Eadan nagedy (M.E.C, 1609). Eudan-na-gaeithe: 'Hill-brow of the wind.'

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 2 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 15 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 32 Houses; Inhabitants 175
  • Census 1851: 25 Houses; Inhabitants 126
  • Census 1861: 20 Houses; Inhabitants 99
  • Census 1871: 19 Houses; Inhabitants 84
  • Census 1881: 21 Houses; Inhabitants 81

TRILLICK TOWN

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Trelick (M.E.C, 1609).
2. Trelick (U1.P.P., 1610).
3. Trelick (1666).
4. Trellick (S. & D., c. 1680).

Treilic: 'Triplestone' (from triliaic, dat. of trelia; nom. Jia, 'a stone.' Tri-liac, called 'a stone circle' on the Ordnance Survey map, gives name to Trillick, which dates from the Mervyn Plantation. It is situated close by Castlemervyn, on a lofty hill about half a mile from the village. The erection of three stones to mark a burial place, particularly that of a chieftain, must have been very common, for names containing the compound tri-liac occur very frequently. Trillick ATW, KPNE. Trillick Town CEN.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 7 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 0 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 94 Houses; Inhabitants 434
  • Census 1851: 102 Houses; Inhabitants 449
  • Census 1861: 82 Houses; Inhabitants 412
  • Census 1871: 80 Houses; Inhabitants 350
  • Census 1881: 73 Houses; Inhabitants 276

TULLYNINCRIN

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Tollenankerrin (C.S., 1661).
2. Tallenkeran alias
3. Tollenankerin (S. & D., c. 1680).

Tullach an aon-chaorthainn: 'Summit of the lone rowantree.' In the Celtic tradition, the rowan has a long and still popular history in folklore as a tree which protects against witchcraft and enchantment. The physical characteristics of the tree may have contributed to its protective reputation, including the tiny five pointed star or pentagram on each berry opposite its stalk. Tullynincrin 1826, CEN, ATW.

  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 15 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 29 Houses; Inhabitants 156
  • Census 1851: 24 Houses; Inhabitants 104
  • Census 1861: 21 Houses; Inhabitants 96
  • Census 1871: 20 Houses; Inhabitants 96
  • Census 1881: 17 Houses; Inhabitants 85

TULLYWOLLEY

Old spellings: (KPNE)
1. Tolly vally (M.E.C, 1609).
2. Tollyvolly (U.P.P., 1610).
3. Tallevally (C.S., 1661).
4. Tallevally (S. & D., c, 1680).

Tulach Ui Mhaolaodha: 'O'Malley's, or O'Melly's hill.' Tullawooly KPNE, Tullyvolley 1826, Tullywolley CEN. Tullywooly ATW.


  • Hearth Tax 1666: 0 tax payers/Hearths
  • Tithe Applotment 1826: 9 agricultural holdings over one acre
  • Census 1841: 11 Houses; Inhabitants 72
  • Census 1851: 9 Houses; Inhabitants 61
  • Census 1861: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 43
  • Census 1871: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 39
  • Census 1881: 8 Houses; Inhabitants 39