Tuesday, January 16, 2018

The Thomas McQuaid Family of Tummery, Dromore Parish, County Tyrone

To find your Ancestors in Ireland, you need to follow the land. Using only records found online, I was able to trace my Dromore Parish, County Tyrone ancestors from 1805-1929. This post is dual purposed, it will explain how to use on-line Irish Land records and explore my McQuaid’s and the families that they married into. My Great Grandfather, Thomas John McQuaid was born in Tummery, Dromore Parish, County Tyrone in 1871. He came to America, with his family in 1880. Family lines from Tummery include McQuaid, Barrett, Gallagher, Teague, McNabb, O’Donnell and McMahon. Here is their story, told by the land.


TUMMERY


An t-Iomaire: The ridge. OSNB; TNCT; Possibly a boundary ridge. Old-timers pronounce it as “Chimmery”. Timory (1609, 1654); Tumory (1666); Tummery (1834); The eastern part of this townland was known as “Tummery Teague” and the western part, “Tummery Gallagher”. Other names know here are, Drumbrack (Druim breac): the speckled drumlin, and Barnatomog (Ba’rr na dtomo’g): top of the bushes. “The Long Shot” is the name of a field on James O’Neill’s land.

Tummery Teague OSM-1834: Houses 37; Inhabitants 164; Arable acres 210; bog 30Tummery Gallagher OSM-1834: Houses 35; Inhabitants 210; Arable acres 227; bog 50Tummery (total)- Hearth Tax 1666: 3 tax payers/Hearths- Leases per Landed Estates Court 1805: 38 for 3 lives, 4 yr to yr, plus Bog- OSM-1834: Houses 72; Inhabitants 374; Arable acres 437; bog 80- Tithe Applotment 1834: 66 agricultural holdings over one acre- Census 1841: 87 Houses; Inhabitants 479- Census 1851: 73 Houses; Inhabitants 329- Leases per Landed Estates Sale 1855: 38 for 3 lives, 4 yr to yr, plus Bog- Leases per Griffith’s Valuation 1860: 63- Census 1861: 74 Houses; Inhabitants 343- Census 1871: 61 Houses; Inhabitants 315- Census 1881: 47 Houses; Inhabitants 264- Census 1891: 41 Houses; Inhabitants 209- Census 1901: 38 Houses; Inhabitants 139- Census 1911: 31 Houses; Inhabitants 122


Note 1: On the Ordnance Survey Memoirs and the 1834 Tithe Applotment, acres were “Irish or Plantation acres”, not English statute acres. The Ordnance Survey maps used the English statute acre measurement. The English statute acre is also used on the 1841, and later, census and the Griffith’s Valuation of 1860. The Irish acre is 1.62 times larger than the English statute acre. The difference between the Irish acre and the statute acre arises from the fact that the Irish mile is 14⁄11 miles (1.273 miles (2.049 km)). Irish Acres X 1.62 = English Standard Acres


Note 2: Area is in acres - roods - perches1. Acre: Originally, the amount plowed by a yoke of oxen in a day, and hence very variable. Legally, the area of a piece 40 poles long by 4 broad; that is 160 square rods (43,560 square feet).2. Rood: one-fourth of an acre; or 40 square rods; 10,890 square feet3. Perch: one rod; 5.5 yards; 16.5 feet. One square perch equals 1 square rod or 272.25 square feet


Note 3: ALL of the Land Records used their own method of numbering the Lots. The only way to compare is to use the groups of Family and Given names.


Encumbered Estates Court Rentals for Tummery.

The Landed Estates Court is also known as the Encumbered Estates Court and the Land Judges Court. It was set up to deal with land whose owners were either insolvent or otherwise without the resources needed to properly manage their estates. The Court sold off around 8000 estates. The sales took place between 1849 and 1875. - See more at: http://www.irish-genealogy-toolkit.com/landed-estates-court-rentals.html#sthash.ENDkPCCB.dpuf


The sale of ALL lands in Tummery was posted in 1855, before the Griffith's valuation. It included a list of people leasing lots at that time AND a list of any ACTIVE 3 Lives Leases for each lot. These 3 Life Leases were given in 1805 for Tummery.  


Gale Days were the 1st of May & 1st of Nov; ie. ALL males in the family are to provide manual labor to the Landlord on these days.  Also, note that ALL males had to provide 6 days of labor each year to the County for maintenance of roads & bridges.


Note that the 1805 leases were given by George Gledstanes, Sr and George Gledstance, Jr. The owner at the time of the 1855 Encumbered Estate Sale was Richard Donovan Speer. These names can be useful when searching estate documents.


The Encumbered Estates Court Rentals were originally available only at the National Archives of Ireland in Dublin and PRONI in Belfast, they were launched online by FindMyPast in May 2011.Link to FindMyPast's Landed estate's court rentals collection.
Link to GOOGLE Drive folder with 1855 Tummery Landed Estates Court Rental.Tummery Encumbered Estates Court Sales 1855





         

There are 16 pages to the Tummery Encumbered Estates Sales package, including maps showing the placement of each lot leased in 1805. By comparing these maps to the OS maps used with the 1860 Griffith’s Valuation we can determine how the lot #’s coincided with each other. The Dromore Parish Tithe Applotment was taken in 1834. The lot numbers on the Tithe do not line up with 1860 Griffith's Valuation. By comparing names on the Tithe to those holding the lease at the time of the 1855 Encumbered Estates Sales and the names of those given the 1805 leases, we can determine how the lots match the Tithe. From 1860 through 1929 we can use the ‘Griffith’s Revision books’ to determine who these lots passed to. We can also use the 1901 and 1911 census,’House and Building Return (Form B10)’, right column, which gives the name of the person holding the lease or owning the lot, to match the lot number in the Griffith’s Revision books that include those years.  

 This means we can determine the names of the individuals holding each lot in Tummery from 1805 to 1929 and who the lots passed to over time. The date of land passing between people gives a hint as to the date of a death or emigration.


For the purpose of this post, it would be too tedious to track all of the leases in Tummery through the years. I will give a detailed example of my family lines. The method can be used to track others if you wish.


My McQuaid family of Tummery:

Thomas McQuaid born abt 1770 was named, with two brothers, holding a three lives lease in Corbally Fergus, now known as Knocknahorn, in 1796. He married Rose Teague of Tummery, born abt 1770. They had at least three children between 1800 and 1813. By the 1826 Kilskerry Tithe Thomas was dead and Rose and family were living in Lisdoo, a field away from Tummery. Their son Thomas born abt 1805 married Mary McCourt abt 1833 and had their children in Lisdoo. Thomas also rented land to farm in Tummery. Thomas’s sister Brigid born abt 1813 married Bernard McNabb of Tummery, abt 1840. Thomas B1805 had a son Thomas B1837, and two daughters Catherine Ellen B1833 Anne B1836. Thomas B1837 married Mary Ann Barrett B1835, of Tummery. Her father was Denis Barrett and mother Margaret Gallagher. Anne B1836 married John O’Donnell born Abt 1823, of Tummery. Brother and sister, Thomas B1837 and Anne B1836 were married on the same day, 4 Feb 1856. Anne in Kilskerry because she was living in Lisdoo and Thomas in Dromore because Mary Barrett was from Tummery. Catherine Ellen B1833 Married John McMahon, in Kilskerry, in 1855. John was the son of Patrick McMahon of Tummery.  Thomas B1837 and family left Tummery for America in 1880. Some of the McNabbs, Barretts, McMahon’s and O’Donnell’s stayed in Tummery. 


Let us see what the land can tell us about my McQuaid’, Barret’s, McNabb’s, O’Donnell’s, McMahon’s and Gallagher’s of Tummery.


1805; Encumbered Estates 3 Life leases 

Tummery 1805, as stated in 1855

Parcel 3, Lot-1; 32A 0R 0P  Lease dated 1st June, 1805, George Gledstance, senior and George Gledstance, junior, to Patrick McMahon, Bryan McMahon and Owen Keenan, for the life of Michael Gallagher, now dead,of Henry Osburne, then age 6 years, and John M’Cusker, then aged 10 years, or 31 years from 1st May, 1805, at the yearly rent of 22 pounds 1s 10d with 12d in the pound Agent’s fees, late currency. This rent has been temporarily abated to 19 pounds 8s 8d. The contents in the lease are 16a 3r 17p Plantation measure. Henry Osburne has emigrated to Australia. By endorsement on the lease, the rent was abated by 13s 6d.


Parcel 23, 23a, 23b, Lot-4; 21A 3R 10P Lease dated 1st June, 1805, George Gledstance, senior and George Gledstance, junior, to Bryan Gallagher, for the life of Michael Gallagher, now dead,of Henry Osburne, then age 6 years, and John M’Cusker, then aged 10 years, or 31 years from 1st May, 1805, at the yearly rent of 11 pounds 2s with 1s in the pound Receiver’s fees, late currency. The contents in the lease are 9a. 3r. Plantation measure. Henry Osburne has emigrated to Australia. 


Parcel 27, Lot-4; 8A 3R 20P Lease dated 1st June, 1805, George Gledstance, senior and George Gledstance, junior, to Francis McNabb, for the life of Michael Gallagher, now dead,of Henry Osburne, then age 6 years, and John M’Cusker, then aged 10 years, or 31 years from 1st May, 1805, at the yearly rent of 7 pounds 7s 6d with 1s in the pound Receiver’s fees, late currency. This rent has been temporarily abated to 6 pounds 10s. The contents in the lease are 5a Plantation measure. Henry Osburne has emigrated to Australia.


Parcel 37, Lot-3; 12A 1R 0P Lease dated 1st June, 1805, George Gledstance, senior and George Gledstance, junior, to James O’Donnell, for the life of Michael Gallagher, now dead,of Henry Osburne, then age 6 years, and John M’Cusker, then aged 10 years, or 31 years from 1st May, 1805, at the yearly rent of 8 pounds 6s 6d with 12d in the pound Receiver’s fees, late currency. This rent has been temporarily abated to 6 pounds 8s 4d. The contents in the lease are 5a 3r 1p Plantation measure. Henry Osburne has emigrated to Australia.


There are NO McQuaid’s or Barrets in Tummery, with 3 Life Leases, in 1805 per the Encumbered Estate Sales


1834; Dromore Parish Tithe Applotment Book Index 1834 

PRONI FIN5A/114/1

This is Denis Barrett born abt 1810, husband to Margaret Gallagher, most likely the daughter of Bryan Gallagher. They hold Bryan Gallagher’s active,1805, 3 lives lease on Parcel 23,23ab in 1855, on the Encumbered Estate Sales listing.Barrett     Denis     Tumery


This is Bryan Gallagher that holds the 3 Lives Lease on Parcel 23,23ab in 1805. Most likely the father to Margaret Gallagher wife of Denis Barrett.Galagher     Bryan     Tumery


This is Thomas McQuaid born abt 1805, husband to Mary McCourt married 1833, son of Thomas and Rose McQuaid nee Teague born in Tummery. He lives in Lisdoo, Kilskerry with his mother Rose and siblings at the time of the Tithe. This land, in Tummery, is leased to farm,  on a year to year lease, Parcel 28 & 28a on the Encumbered Estate Sales listing.

McQuaid     Thomas     Tumery


This is Francis McNabb that holds the 3 Lives Lease on Parcel 27 in 1805.Father to Bernard that marries Bridget McQuaid in 1840.

McNabb     Francis     Tumery


This is James O’Donnell that holds the 3 Lives Lease on Parcel 37 in 1805. Father to John that marries Ann McQuaid in 1856

O’Donell     James     Tumery


This is Patrick McMahon that holds the 3 Lives Lease on Parcel 3 in 1805. Father to John that marries Catherine McQuaid in 1855.

McMahon     Patrick     Tumery


The list above is the Tithe Index. The original document is not online for the North of Ireland. It is available at PRONI in Belfast and as a microfilm from FamilySearch. The Republic Tithe records are online.Here is a link to the Dromore Parish Tithe record. Tummery is images 178 to 182. Note how the names are clustered. You can see the family names from the 1805 leases in groups on the Tithe.


Encumbered Estates Court Rentals for Tummery1855; Lessee's on Tummery lots

Between the 1805 Lease record and 1855, the following takes place: Note the # of people paying part of the lease on each Parcel. As each family grew through birth and marriage room was made for new houses as the individual came of age. As stated above in 1805 there were 42 total leases in Tummery, by the 1841 census there were 87 houses on the same number of leases. The number of leases does not change until the 3 Lives Leases expire between 1855-1860 when the Griffith’s Valuation was taken. Lot/parcel size will be adjusted to each individual paying rent and ALL Bog land will be divided into leasable parcels. The number of leases will go from 44 to 63 on the same acreage.


Parcel 4, Lot-1; 37A 2R 20P  Patrick McMahon, James Bernard, Sarah Gallagher, John Gallagher, Michael Gallagher. Patrick is the Father of John McMahon that marries Catherine McQuaid in 1855. I believe this is the same Patrick that takes the 3 Lives lease in 1805, on Lot 3, with brother Bryan McMahon.


Parcel 23, 23a, 23b, Lot-4; 21A 3R 10P Owen McQuade, Denis Barrett & Charles Gray are leasing portions of this 21A+ Parcel. The 1805, 3 Lives Lease to Bryan Gallagher is still active. Bryan Gallagher is most likely dead, as he is not listed as leasing in Tummery in 1855. Dieing between 1834 and 1855. Denis Barrett married Margaret Gallagher in 1834. She is most likely the daughter of Bryan.


Parcel 27, Lot-4; 8A 3R 20P Bernard M’Nabb born abt 1811 has taken over the active 3 Lives Lease that was held by Francis McNabb. Bernard is the son of Francis. Francis most likely died between 1834 and 1855. Bernard married Brigid McQuaid on 5 Apr 1840. They were given a Dispensation in the 3rd degree. The individuals marrying are 2nd cousins, with common Great Grandparents.  She is the daughter of Thomas McQuaid and Rose McQuaid nee Teague and the sister to Thomas McQuaid leasing parcel 28 & 28a in 1855.


Parcel 28, 28a, Lot-4; 13A 1R 0P Bernard Crane on 28a and Thomas McQuade , on 28, B1805 are leasing 1 of the 4 Parcels leased for Tenants from year to year, year ending 1st May. This is the son of Thomas McQuaid and Rose McQuaid nee Teague and the brother to Brigid married to Bernard McNabb on Parcel 27. Their parcels abut each other.


Parcel 36, Lot-3; 3A 0R 10P   John O’Donnell born abt 1923 and Cornelius O’Donnell are leasing 1 of the 4 Parcels for Tenants from year to year, year ending 1st May. John O’Donnell is the son of James O’Donnell with an 1805, 3 Lives Lease on Parcel 37. Cornelius O’Donnell is most likely a family member, a brother or Uncle.


Parcel 37, Lot-3; 12A 1R 0P John O’Donnell and Cornelius O’Donnell have taken over the active 1805, 3 Lives Lease that was held by James O’Donnell. John is the son of James. James most likely died between 1834 and 1855. John O’Donnell marries Anne McQuaid in 1856. She is the daughter of Thomas McQuaid B1805, on parcel 28 and the niece of Brigid McNabb nee McQuaid on parcel 27.


1860; Griffith’s Valuation


By the time of the Griffith’s Valuation, the 1805, 3 Life Leases in Tummery had expired. The 42 leases, as set up in 1805 were divided into the areas being paid for by individuals. The bogland was also divided up into lots. The numbering system for the Griffith’s Valuation and the resulting OS maps was different from the 3 Life Lease maps. A comparison needs to be made in order to match the numbering systems.

1805 3 Lives Lease Map Lot-4; Parcels 20-31 with Bog Parcel 43.

3 Lives Lease Map Lot-3; Parcels 31-42.

1805 3 Lives Lease Map Lot-1; Parcels 1-8 plus 43b Bog.

Tummery OS Map as applied to 1860 Griffith’s Valuation


1805 Parcel #
Griffith’s Valuation Lot #
4
51, 52, 53, & 54
23
into 9
23a & 23b & part of 43 bog
=10
27
=22
28
=21a
28a
=16
36
into 24
36
Divided into 21a & 24



1860 Griffith's Valuation Tummery

Lot-2a Thomas McQuaid Jr, 8A 1R 35P This is Thomas B1837, husband to Mary Barrett, married 1856, her father Denis, is on Lot-10. The Female National school is on Lot 2b. Note that Bernard & Bridget McNabb, Thomas’s Aunt & Uncle, are the witnesses at their 1856 wedding.



Lot-10 Denis Barrett, 16A 1R 15P


Lot-21A & 21B Thomas McQuaid, This is Thomas McQuaid B1805, Wife Mary McCourt. Father to Thomas on Lot-2a, Anne O’Donnell nee McQuaid on Lot-24a and Catherine McMahon Nee McQuaid on Lot-51, 52c.


Lot-22 Bernard McNabb,9A 1R 35P This is the husband of Brigid McQuaid sister to Thomas on lot 21A & 21B. Her mother was Rose McQuaid nee Teague who lived in Lisdoo, Kilskerry Parish, one field away. Rose McQuaid is living with her daughter Brigid McNabb in 1860 as she is not listed on the Lisdoo Griffith’s. She would be 91 years of age.Rose dies in Tummery in 1864 at the age of 95. The death is reported by her daughter Brigid McNabb, present at death.

Lot-24a John O’Donnell 24b Cornelius O’Donnell 15A 3R 0P split 50/50. John is the Husband of Ann McQuaid, married 1856,  Daughter of Thomas on Lot 21A & 21B. Note John McMahon & (Catherine) Ellen McQuaid are the witnesses at their 1856 wedding. Ellen is married to John McMahon and the sister to Ann McQuaid.


Lot-43 Patrick McMahon, Land 9A 3R 15P Father to John on Lot-51, 52c.


Lot-51 John McMahon, Land 13A 2R 20P


Lot- 52c John McMahon, House only’ John is the Husband of Catherine Ellen McQuaid B1833, Daughter of Thomas on Lot 21A & 21B. John & Catherine have 4 children between 1859-1866. In 1868 Catherine dies along with their 5th child, in childbirth. John remarries in 1869, to Rose Doran. Thomas McQuaid, brother to John’s 1st wife is a witness at the wedding.The Civil Registration of marriage states John’s father is Patrick McMahon.

1866-1929 Griffith's Revaluation Books Tummery

1861-1866Lot-2a Thomas McQuaid JrLot-10 Denis BarrettLot-21A & 21B Thomas McQuaid B1805’ 1862 Thomas McQuaid is marked as ‘dead’ the lot has Pat Teague penciled in, 1865 the lease is taken over by Patrick Teague. He is a cousin of Thomas’s through his mother Rose.Lot-22 Bernard McNabbLot-24a John O’DonnellLot-24b Cornelius O’Donnell, 1862 Thomas McQuade is penciled in as taking over the Lot. 1865 the lease is taken over by Thomas McQuade. This is the brother to Ann O’Donnell nee McQuaid, married to John O’Donnell on Lot-24a. The same Thomas leasing Lot 2a. 1862 is the same year as the death of Thomas McQuaid B1805. Thomas and Ann’s mother, Mary McQuaid nee McCourt moves after the death of her husband in 1862, to either Lot-2a or 24b, both being paid by son Thomas.Lot-43 Patrick McMahonLot-51 & 52c John McMahon


1867-1880Lot-2a Thomas McQuaid JrLot-10 Denis Barrett, 1876 John Barrett, son of Denis, takes over the lease.Lot-22 Bernard McNabbLot-24a John O’DonnellLot-24b Thomas McQuaidLot-43 Patrick McMahon 1876 the lease passes to John Campbel on Patrick’s death in 1874

Lot-51 & 52c John McMahon


1881Lot-2a Thomas McQuaid JrLot-10 John BarrettLot-22 Bernard McNabbLot-24a John O’DonnellLot-24b Thomas McQuaid, Hugh McDermit takes the lease in 1881. In May of 1880 Thomas McQuaid B1837, Wife Mary McQuaid Nee Barrett, their 9 children ages 9-24 and Rose Barrett, sister to Mary, appear on the Census in Monson, Massachusetts USA Lot-51 & 52c John McMahon


1882-1898Lot-2a Thomas McQuaid Jr, 1885 Daniel O’Donnell Jr takes over the lease, 1896 Lease taken over by Joseph O’Donnell. The O’Donnell’s are family of Thomas’s brother-in-law John on Lot 24a.Lot-10 John BarrettLot-22 Bernard McNabb, 1883 James McNabb, son of Bernard takes over the lease.Bernard died 20 Aug 1881 at age 70.Lot-24a John O’Donnell, John’s wife Bridget O’Donnell Nee McQuaid dies on 5 Dec. 1895.Lot-24b Hugh McDermitLot-51 & 52c John McMahon, 1893 the lease passes to Rose McMahon, John’s 2nd wife, on his death 24 Nov 1890.


1899-1912Lot-10 John BarrettLot-22 James McNabbLot-24a John O’Donnell, John O’Donnell dies 9 Oct 1901 at age 80. His son John takes over the lease. 1910 Bridget O’Donnell takes over the lease. She is the daughter of John O’Donnell.Lot-24b Hugh McDermit, 1899 John O’Donnell Jr takes over the lease. He is the son of John on 24a, 1910 Bridget O’Donnell takes over the lease. She is the daughter of John O’Donnell and sister of John O’Donnell Jr.Lot-51 & 52c Rose McMahon, 1899 the lease passes to Daniel Gallagher Jr. ALL of the McMahon’s are gone from Tummery.


1913-1929Lot-10 John Barrett 1914 John Barrett buys his lot ‘In-Fee’ “LAP’, 1922 the Lot passes to James Barrett B1885, son of John Barrett. Lot-22 James McNabbLot-24a Bridget O’Donnell, 1929 the lot is given up to Patrick Teague a cousin through Bridget’s Grandmother Rose McQuaid Nee TeagueLot-24b Bridget O’Donnell, 1929 the lot is given up to Thomas Teague a cousin through Bridget’s Grandmother Rose McQuaid Nee Teague


1901 Census Tummery

There are NO McMahon’s in Tummery on the 1901 Census.House #26 is Lot-10 John Barrett on the Griffith’s Valuation & Revision Books. The House walls are made of Stone, brick or Concrete, the roof is thatch, and it has 2 windows in the front. 8 occupants live in the houses 3 rooms. The farm has 4 other outbuildings.

House #22 is Lot-22 James McNabb on the Griffith’s Valuation & Revision Books. The House walls are made of Stone, brick or Concrete, the roof is thatch, and it has 2 windows in the front. 2 occupants live in the houses 2 rooms. The farm has 4 other outbuildings.

House #19 is Lot-24a & 24b John O’Donnell on the Griffith’s Valuation & Revision Books. The House walls are made of Stone, brick or Concrete, the roof is thatch, and it has 2 windows in the front. 3 occupants live in the houses 3 rooms. The farm has 6 other outbuildings. One of these outbuildings is the old house on Lot-24b.


1911 Census Tummery

There are NO McMahon’s in Tummery on the 1911 Census.

House #6 is Lot-10 John Barrett on the Griffith’s Valuation & Revision Books. The House walls are made of Stone, brick or Concrete, the roof is thatch, and it has 2 windows in the front. 5 occupants live in the houses 2 rooms. The farm has 4 other outbuildings.John Barrett’s wife Rose Barrett Nee Gallagher died in 1903. Most of the children have gone to Massachusetts USA. Note that Margaret Agnes Gray, age 3, born in America is living with them. She is listed as a niece. She is John’s Granddaughter and daughter of Margaret Barrett married to Patrick Gray. One of John’s children must have supplied the info for the census. Margaret Barrett arrived in Monson Massachusetts in 1898. Passage paid for by Uncle Thomas McQuaid of Monson Massachusetts. She married Patrick Gray in Boston in 1903. Margaret assisted her siblings in going to Boston.

House #12 is Lot-22 James McNabb on the Griffith’s Valuation & Revision Books. The House walls are made of Stone, brick or Concrete, the roof is thatch, and it has 2 windows in the front. 6 occupants live in the houses 3 rooms. The farm has 3 other outbuildings.James McNabb married Sarah Sweeny of Tummery on the 26 of Nov 1903

House #15 is Lot-24a & 24b John O’Donnell on the Griffith’s Valuation & Revision Books. In 1910 Bridget O’Donnell took over the lease.The House on this lot is not occupied. The Census Form B1 (House and Building return) states the Leaseholder, Bridget O’Donnell is away in ‘America’. She continues to pay the lease until 1929.



Thus ends the 124 year long trail of land leading to the Thomas McQuaid family of Tummery, Dromore Parish, County Tyrone.




























Tuesday, March 8, 2016

Fair Day Triangles; part-III

What affect did the  ‘Fair Day Triangle’ theory have on the dispersion of McQuaid/McQuade families in Tyrone and Fermanagh?

This is a part three of a three part post on what I refer to as ‘Fair Day Triangles’, an attempt at determining the size of the foot print that our ancestors lived their lives in.  Part-I & Part II can be found at these links.

Parts I and II of this series gave you a look at the size of the foot print my McQuaid family lived in and the reasons for their travels. As you can see this changed with time. This post will show you where the McQuaid’s (McQuade’s) settled at the time of the Tithe, 1823-1837. Or, how they dispersed over the ‘Fair Day Triangles’.

A picture tells a thousand words, so I will let them tell the story. 



70% of all McQuaid/McQuade families, in County Tyrone, lived within the 12 mile radius circle of Tummery. Dromore Parish, County Tyrone at the time of the Tithe.



100% of all McQuaid/McQuade families, in County Fermanagh, lived within the 12 mile radius circle of Tummery, Dromore Parish, County Tyrone at the time of the Tithe.

The largest concentrations of McQuaid/McQuade families were in Dromore and Kilskerry Parishes.





I have come across hundreds of McQuaid/McQuade families, from Counties Tyrone and Fermanagh, living in the United States, Canada , Australia, Scotland and England, in my search for family connections. They have left their prints across the globe. There are message boards on the WEB dedicated to finding McQuaid/McQuade families in Tyrone. Hopefully this series of posts will help someone that is trying to retrace their family footsteps. The McQuaid/McQuade families have left a print, a 12 mile radius print, in this corner of Ireland.

Part-I & Part II can be found at these links.

Fair Day Triangles; part-II

This is a part two of a three part post on what I refer to as ‘Fair Day Triangles’, an attempt at determining the size of the foot print that our ancestors lived their lives in.     Part-I & Part III can be found at these links.
As stated in my previous post, a person could travel up to 12 miles, in one direction, conduct their business, and return home, in one day.
Reasons for travel could be as follows;
  • Church
  • Availability of roads and means of communication
  • Legal affairs
  • Medical needs
  • Market and Fair days
  • Civil registration of birth, marriage and death after 1864

Church
One would travel with-in their parish for church. But this could also change over time. As an example my McQuaid’s were from Lisdoo, Kilskerry parish, they also leased land in Tummery, Dromore parish. They went to Magheralough Chapel (St. Macartrn’s) in Stranagomer, Kilskerry, 3.5 miles away. My Thomas McQuaid married Mary Ann Barrett,  4 Feb, 1856. She was from Tummerry, Dromore parish, only a field away. They were married in Dromore, Dromore parish, 5 miles away. On the same day Thomas’s sister Anna, married John O’Donnell from Tummery. They were married in Magherlough Chapel. I can see the precession walking across the field from Lisdoo to Tummerry, 5 miles to Dromore, Dromore parish, 5-6 miles to Stranagomer, Kilskerry parish, and 3.5 miles back to Tummery, where they all took up residence. Although, the train from Dromore to Trillick started in 1854, so maybe they splurged, and took the ride on that leg of the journey. They were lucky that they married in 1856 and not after 1864. No one had to walk the 5-6 miles from Stranagomer to Irvinestown, to provide information, for civil registration with the PLU, for Anna’s marriage. Or, 8.8 miles from Dromore to Omagh to register Thomas’s marriage.

Roads and means of communication changed over time as follows; 

“The greater part of the road pattern was already in place in 1740. The main Enniskillen and Londonderry road originally passed through Tempo and over the mountains to Fintona and on to Omagh. In 1828 a new road was made to avoid the mountains that divided Fermanagh and Tyrone. It is a little longer than the original, but has the advantage of being level. From the Enniskillen-Iervinstown road a trunk route strikes out northeast along a lowland corridor by Ballinamallard, Trillick and Dromore, towards Omagh. This opened communication with Dromore and Trillick and would become the route for the railway in the 1850's.”

Taylor & Skinner: Maps of the Roads of Ireland Surveyed 1777, indicate that the road from from Omagh to Enniskillen, through Trilick and Dromore, did exist in 1777. The problem was that it was not wide enough for a large coach or car. Traffic was by foot, horse back or small cart. Thus the main route went over the mountains via Tempo, Fintona to Omagh.

‘By the 1830’s ‘Roads here were described as being quite good. The main road from Omagh to Enniskillen passed through Fintona, Trillick and Kilskeery and was in good repair, the road from Dromore to Trillick was just being made, while the roads from Trillick to Tempo and Fivemiletown were described as hilly and in great need of repair.’

This means that prior to 1828 Dromore and Trillick were isolated and the major route from the south and east, going north, went around them. That meant for people living in these areas, there was an advantage to going to market and fairs in Fintona, Omagh or Tempo. These towns were also Post Towns because the mail coach passed through. Drumquin is also on the road from Londonderry to Enniskillen via Omagh. Dromore had no weekly market at this time and the market in Trillick was local. The hiring fair in Trillick, in May and November, had a wide draw.

Places to conduct Legal affairs changed over time as follows;

Petty Sessions:

Petty Sessions were formally established with legislation in 1827, although they had been in operation for centuries before that. By 1851, amid growing concerns about the fairness of some of the justices of the peace, the Petty Sessions (Ireland) Act sought to tighten up the rules. JPs were gradually replaced by trained and paid magistrates as the 19th century went on.

Covering both civil and criminal cases, the Petty Sessions’ brief was wide. Cases ranged from merchants who had not paid duty on their goods, to workers suing for unpaid wages. Farmers were fined for letting their cattle wander or for allowing their cart to be driven without their name painted on the side. Debts were collected and disputes settled. Public drunkenness was a common offence, as was assault and general rowdiness. Political feelings were often volatile and there are frequent cases all over the country of people charged with putting up seditious posters or leaflets. When the court had no jurisdiction to hear a case, when the case was of too serious a nature, JPs were obliged to process them, pass them on, to the Quarterly Sessions or the Assizes Court. In these cases, the accused was usually committed to the local gaol to await trial.

Petty Sessions were held in all of the Market/Fair towns listed in my previous post with the exception of Dromore and Drumquin.

Quarter Sessions:


Quarter sessions for Criminal acts. (Quarter sessions meant court was held four times per year).
  • 1796, June 22, Proclam. Tyrone divided into two districts. 1. Omagh consisting of the baronies of Omagh & Strabane. With the towns of Omagh & Strabane alternating Quarter sessions for this district. 2. Dungannon consisting of the baronies of Dungannon and Upper Dungannon and Clogher. With the towns of Dungannon and Clogher alternating Quarter sessions for this district.
  • 1837, Dec 22, Proclam.  Dividing the County of Tyrone and appointing court towns. Amended the Act of 1796 and set FORTH as follows, making four Districts;
    1. Dungannon, consisting of the barony of Dungannon, held in the town of Dungannon
    2. Clogher, consisting of the barony of Clogher. Held in th town of Clogher
    3. Omagh, consisting of the barony of Omagh and so much of the parishes of Cappagh and Termonmagaguirk as are situated in the barony of Stabane, save and except, however, so much of the said barony of Omagh in the parish of Termonamongan and such parish or portion of land called the Skirts of Urney and Skirts of Ardstraw. Held in the town of Omagh.
    4. Strabane, consisting of the barony of Strabane and so much of the barony of Omagh in the parish of Termonamongan and such parish or portion of land called the Skirts of Urney and Skirts of Ardstraw, save and except, however, so much of the said barony of Strabane in the parishes of Cappagh and Termonmagaguirk as are situated in the barony of Srtabane. Held in the town of Strabane.
  • 1864. Oct 4, Proclam.  Consolidating Districts of Omagh and Strabane into district of Omagh and appointing Court Town.
    Shifts the Parish of Bodoney Lower from Strabane to Omagh.
  • 1876, Oct 4,  Proclam. Transferring all criminal business (except appeals from Petty Sessions) from Clogher and Stabane to Omagh.
    Transfers all sessions from Strabane and Clogher to Omagh, except appeals from Petty Sessions.
This link has detail of changes.

Assizes:
The Assizes had jurisdiction outside Dublin over the most serious criminal offenses, such as treason and murder. Persons accused of these crimes would first come before the Petty Sessions, where a justice of the peace or resident magistrate would decide if there was sufficient evidence to justify a trial. If such evidence existed, the magistrate would issue a bill of indictment and refer to matter to a Grand Jury, which would decide if the bill was correct and supported by evidence, issuing an indictment.

Omagh, for Co. Tyrone and Enniskillen, for Co, Fermanagh, held courts Assizes.

Places to address medical needs were as follows.

Between 1821 and 1837, all of the market towns listed in my first post were listed as having a dispensary. The county Infirmary was in Omagh for Tyrone and Enniskillen for County Fermanagh.

In 1834 the Tyrone county Infirmary was located in the town of Omagh. In 1833 there were 234 patients. The prevailing diseases were scrofula (tuberculosis), lues veneria (syphilis), ulcers, and accidents.

The Omagh Poor Law Union was formally declared on 9 May, 1839. The workhouse was opened in 1841. During the famine the whole workhouse was turned over to a Fever Hospital. A purpose-built fever hospital was subsequently erected to the north of the workhouse.

The Lowtherstown (Irvinestown) Poor law Union was formally declared on 14 September, 1840. The workhouse opened in 1844. During the famine, in the mid-1840’s, a 40 bed fever hospital was erected to the north of the workhouse.

The Enniskillen Poor Law Union was formally declared on 10 August, 1840. The workhouse opened in 1844. During the famine, a hired house and sheds were appropriated to accommodate 120 fever patients. A fever hospital was erected at the south of the workhouse and opened in October 1849.

In 1853 The County Tyrone Lunatic Asylum was opened  in Omagh.

Markets and Fair Days

Markets and Fairs were held as listed in my last post. Note the locations of Fairs that specialized in Livestock and Linen.

The following is from; ‘The Little Book of Tyrone’, by Cathal Coyle

“Hiring Fairs also took place and Tyrone was a county that was strongly associated with the practice. Prospective employees offered themselves for work on farms and household duties to farmers for the agricultural season. Their treatment varied from farm to farm, and when the annual contract expired, the fair was the meeting place. It was Strabane that hosted the biggest hiring fair in Tyrone. As with most towns, the main fairs lasted two days and were held in May and November. Strabane’s fair served not only the immediate area but a wider area stretching from West Donegal to Cavan and Monaghan.

Some Tyrone hiring fairs dated back as far as the seventeenth century, including those at Trillick, Killeter and Drumquin. Many of the people hired came from the west coast of Donegal.”

This reminds me of an old story handed down by my 3rd cousins mother, a former resident of Tummery, Dromore parish. Tummery is divided into two sections, Tummery Gallagher and Tummery Teague. My family has a Tyrone Gallagher line. When asked why there are so many Gallagher families in the area, she would give the following reply. “Many years ago five Gallagher brothers came over the hill from Donegal. Their purpose was to take as a wife the daughter of a well to-do farmer.” I can see them hiring themselves out to farmers that had daughters of the right age. By the end of the work season they were well on the way to a marriage agreement. Parcels of land were given as a dowry by the farmers they worked for.

This explains why I have DNA connections to Gallagher lines from Donegal, while not having any known connection to that county. The 1855 Encumbered Estates Court Sales for Tummery, lists the three lives leases given in 1805. At that time leases were given to nine Gallagher’s. If the story is true it took place in the seventeen hundreds.

From Francis Kelly, ‘The Old Ballad of the Killeter Fair’


  • Attention pay, you country folk, a wee while if you please.
  • I’ll sing to you a verse or two, to amuse you at my ease.
  • It’s all about a handsome girl, her equal would be rare,
  • And the first place that I met her was in Killeter Fair.
Chorus
  • Her eyes they shone like diamonds, 
  •  and her cheeks bloomed like the rose,  .  
  • She is my first, my only love, no matter where she goes.     
  • She stole my heart completely, boys, the truth I must declare,  
  • And the first place that I met her was in Killeter Fair.


Civil Registration of 1864


The Market Towns on the Fair Day Triangle Map fall in three Poor Law Unions. But the 12 mile radius circles of these Market Towns fall within five Poor Law Unions.


  • Fintona, Donacavey parish is in the Omagh PLU, but the southern end of the parish is in the Clogher PLU.
  • Dromre, Dromore Parish is in the Omagh PLU, but the south western part of the parish is in the Irvinestown Fermanagh PLU.
  • Trillick, Kilskerry Parish is in the Irvinestown, Fermanagh PLU, but the eastern part of the parish is in the Enniskillen, Fermanagh PLU
  • Omagh, Drumragh Parish is in the OMAGH PLU.
  • Ievinestown, Derryvullen parish, Fermanagh is in the Irvinestown PLU
  • Drumquin, East Longfield Parish is in the OMAGH PLU and  West Longfield is in Castlederg PLU

When Civil Registration of birth, marriage and death became mandatory, in 1864, the registration took place at the PLU the event took place in. Most people were born and died at home and were married in a church. For my family living in Tummery, Dromore parish, Tyrone, a birth or death, at home, was reported to the PLU in Irvinestown, county Fermanagh. A marriage at the parish church in Dromore, Dromore parish, was reported to the PLU in Omagh, Drumragh Parish, county Tyrone. If a person from Tummery going to the Drumquin Fair was trampled by a horse and died, on the west side of the town, the death had to be  reported at the Castlederg PLU. If it happened on the east side of town, it was reported to the PLU in Omagh. If you cannot find a civil death record, listed under the PLU for the townland your ancestor lived in, maybe he did not die at home. Note that the dispensaries were in the market towns, the county infirmaries were in Omagh or Enniskillen and fever hospitals were at the work houses. They were most likely in a different PLU from where the person lived.

The coming of the Railway

The coming of the ‘Londonderry & Enniskillen Railway’ in the 1850’s had a great affect on travel within the Fair Day Triangle Map. The railway followed the level route of the road built in 1828, Omagh, Fintona, Dromore, Trillick and Enniskillen. The railway by-passed the mountain road to Fivemiletown and Clogher. To get to these places one had to take the railway to Enniskillen and transfer east. The coming of livestock cars and and easy means of transport for large buyers from the east would drive those selling cattle, pigs and linen to the fairs along the railway, namely Trillick, Fintona and Omagh.

In the 2nd half of the 19th century, the railway greatly increased the 12 mile radius circle that the Fair day Triangle map is based on. The railway reached Newtownstewat and Omagh in 1852, Fintona in 1853 and Dromore, Trillick, Irvinestown and Enniskillen in 1854.








I can envision the procession in May of 1880, when Thomas McQuaid, his wife Mary Barrett and nine children, age 5-24, walked from Tummery to Dromore Road station to catch the train to Londonderry (Derry). The 1 hr 50 min. ride would take them to the ship leaving for America. What was going through their head as they left a life of living in a 12 mile radius circle and headed out on a 3,000+ mile trip across the sea?


 Part-I & Part III can be found at these links.

Tuesday, March 1, 2016

‘Fair Day Triangles’ or Where did your G…Grandparents meet?

This is a part one of a three part post on what I refer to as ‘Fair Day Triangles’, an attempt at determining the size of the foot print that our ancestors lived their lives in.   Part-II & Part III can be found at these links.
Have you ever researched your family history and did not consider a finding because the family in question did not live in the same townland or parish as your known family? Have you run into a brick wall when researching the family of the bride, because there is no family by that name in the townland or parish? Have you ever wondered how far afield your ancestor would have traveled to meet their future spouse, or where and how they met?

To answer these questions we need to know several things.
  • Where did they go for church?
  • Where and when did they go for Market and Fair days?
  • Where did they go for court and legal affairs?
  • What was the means of transportation at the time and how fast could they travel? Could they make it to their destination and back, with time to conduct business, in one day?
  • Were there roads to and from their destination?

This post will attempt to answer these questions for my ancestors living in Tummery, Dromore Parish, County Tyrone.
Means of Transport
In the 18th & 19th century, the means of transportation for the farmer in Tyrone was walking or by horse.
  • A person walking will average 3-4 miles per hour.
  • A person, on foot,  leading a horse, will average 3-4 miles per hour.
  • A horse with person riding, with or without cart, will average 5 to 8 miles per hour at a slow trot.

With these limitations, a person could travel up to 12 miles, each way, and have time to conduct business, in one day.
The following illustration shows the area within a 12 mile radius of Tummery, Dromre Parish Tyrone.


As can be seen Tummery is 5 miles from the town of Dromore, where the Parish church is located. My family most likely went to Market in any of the towns in green or yellow.

Several questions arise when looking at the map.
  • When going to any of these market towns I could meet people coming from a 12 mile radius of the town, not just the 12 mile radius of Tummery. What area did this cover?
  • What days were the Markets and Fairs conducted in each town? Did they compete or adjust their schedules for the biggest draw? Did the markets and Fairs sell the same things or did one have to go to different places to sell cattle, pigs or flax?
  • What towns held court and had dispensaries?
The following illustration shows the area within a 12 mile radius each town.


This opens up the possibility of meeting people from most of western Tyrone, County Fermanagh and part of County Donegal.  Also note that the towns coordinated the days of the week for markets and days of the month for fairs. This allowed the town to draw the largest crowds. Also note that Dromore did not have a weekly market. This means my family from Tummery, Dromore Parish, most likely went to Trillick, Irvinestown or Drumquin for market.

The illustration above sheds light on DNA matches that I have received.
  • My 3rd GGrand parents were Denis Barrett and Margaret Gallagher. Denis is on the 1834 Tithe, in Tummery. He is also listed, on the same lot, in 1855 when the townland was sold and listed on the ‘Encumbered Estates Court Sales’. This document also states that the lot he leases in 1855 was originally given in a ‘3 lives’ lease to Bryan Gallagher in 1805. I assume that the Margaret Gallagher, that Denis married, was the daughter of this Bryan, but this is not proven. The question arises as to where Denis Barrett came from between 1805 and 1834 and where did he meet Miss Gallagher? The Gallagher's are from Tummery, Dromore, but there is no other Barrett in Dromore Parish on the Tithe. My DNA match is to a Barrett family from Aughadulla, Drumragh Parish, Tyrone. Aughadulla townland is close to Dumquin  and Omagh, both within my Tummerry, 12 mile, ‘Fair Day Triangle’ area.
  • I have two DNA matches to the Moss family line. One from Garvagh townland in Termonamongan Parish, Tyrone (Just north of Killeter). This goes back to the late 18th century, and the other from Fintona, Donacavey Parish, Tyrone, which goes back to the mid 19th century. There is no Moss listed on the 1827 Donacavey  or Dromore 1834 Tithe, but many on the 1828 Termonamongan Tithe. Note that Killitter, Tummery and Fintona are well within the Drumquin 12 mile radius circle.

The following is a listing of markets and fairs by town, from ‘A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837’ & ‘Ordnance Survey Memoirs Co. Tyrone 1821, 1823,1831-36’.

FINTONA, a post-town, in the parish of DONAGHCAVEY, barony of CLOGHER, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 7 miles (S.) from Omagh
The market is on Friday, and is well supplied with all kinds of provisions; and large quantities of brown linens are sold every alternate Friday to the bleachers, who attend from a great distance. A fair is held on the 22nd of every month, which is large and well attended. Petty sessions are held on the second Tuesday in each month; and a court leet and baron for the manor of Castlemaine once a month, for the recovery of debts under 40s. There is a dispensary.

DROMORE, a parish, in the barony of OMAGH, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 8 miles (S. W.) from Omagh, on the road from that place to Enniskillen.
Is a constabulary police station, and has a penny post to Omagh, and a dispensary. Fairs are held for farming stock on Feb. 1st, March 17th, Easter-Monday, Whit-Monday, May 1st, June 24th, Aug. 1st, Sept. 29th, Nov. 1st and 26th, and Dec. 26th. No weekly Market Day at this point in time.

TRILLICK, a market-town, in the parish of KILSKERRY, barony of OMAGH, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 9 miles (N. by E.) from Enniskillen, on the road to Omagh, to both which places it has a penny post.
In which a market is held every Tuesday, chiefly for butter and provisions; and there is a fair on the 14th of every month, including a Hiring Fair. This is a constabulary police station; petty sessions are held on alternate Mondays; and courts leet and baron every three weeks, for the recovery of debts under 50s. There is a dispensary.

OMAGH, an assize, market and post-town, partly in the parish of CAPPAGH, but chiefly in that of DRUMRAGH, barony of OMAGH, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 26 ¼ miles (S. E.) from Londonderry.
The market, held on Saturday, is well supplied with provisions, and on alternate Saturdays brown linens are exposed for sale: a market-house was built in 1830, in which grain and vegetables are sold, and a very convenient range of shambles was opened in 1834. Fairs are held on the first Saturday of every month for all kinds of cattle. There is a dispensary and County Infirmary. The assizes for the county are held here; as are the quarter sessions for the baronies of Omagh and Strabane, alternately with the town of Strabane. A court baron is also held every third Thursday for the manor of Audleston, at which the seneschal of the lord of the manor presides: debts to the amount of £4 are recoverable in it.

IRVINESTOWN, or LOWTHERSTOWN, a market and post-town, in that part of the parish of DERRYVULLEN which is in the barony of LURG, county of FERMANAGH, and province of ULSTER, 7 ¾ miles (N. W.) from Enniskillen.
It has a dispensary, a constabulary police station, and petty sessions are held on alternate Wednesdays. The market is on Wednesday, and fairs are held on the 8th of each month and on the 12th of April.

DRUMQUIN, a market-town, partly in the parish of EAST LONGFIELD and WEST LONGFIELD, barony of OMAGH, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 7 miles (W.N.W.) from Omagh, on the river Roe, and on the nearest road from Londonderry to Enniskillen. There is a daily penny post to Omagh. The market, on Thursday, is well supplied with provisions and yarn; and fairs are held on Jan. 17th, March 21st, May 2nd, June 9th, Aug. 15th, Sept. 17th, Nov. 9th, and Dec. 12th, for general farming stock: those held in March and June are large and well attended. Quarterly cattle fairs, to which English dealers resort, are the principal means of circulating money. Here are a meeting- house for Presbyterians, in connection with the Synod of Ulster, a large male and female school, and a dispensary

ENNISKILLEN, a borough and market-town, and a parish, partly in the barony of MAGHERABOY, but chiefly in that of TYRKENNEDY, county of FERMANAGH, (of which it is the chief town), and province of ULSTER, 21 ½ miles (S. E.) from Ballyshannon, and 80 ½ (N. N. W.) from Dublin. The patent granted to William Cole, in 1612, authorized the holding of a market on Thursdays, and a fair on Lammas-day, with tolls; and in 1813 a patent was granted to the Earl of Enniskillen for holding fairs on the 10th of each month, except March, May, and August. Besides the general market on Thursdays, a butter market is held on Tuesdays. A butter and grain market have been built on land belonging to the Earl, at an expense of upwards of £900; there is another market-house under the town-hall, also a pig market; and convenient shambles have been erected at an expense of £750, which was advanced by the Earl to the corporation. The borough court, held every Thursday, has jurisdiction to the amount of £3. 6. 8. The assizes for the county and quarter sessions of the peace are held in the county court-house, which is a plain building near the eastern bridge. There is a dispensary and County Infirmary.
What were the condition of the roads between Market Towns and how were they maintained?
From; The Industrial Archaeology of Northern Ireland
by W.A. McCutcheon
Director, Ulster Museum, Belfast
ISBN 0-8386-3125-8

Road travel and traffic in the stage coach era, 1740-1850. p16
’It would appear that in Ireland the 17th century, and the early years of the 18th, were characterized by a general absence of wheeled vehicles, on a fairly primitive road network. Those people who did have occasion to move about the country walked or rode horseback, whilst goods were conveyed by pack-horse. Gradually the statutory labor provided by the parishes for six days in each year began to effect improvement in the overall condition of Ulster roads but not on sufficiently wide a front as to stimulate any immediate increase in the use of wheeled vehicles. Right through the 18th century horseback remained the most popular method of travel. By the beginning of the 19th century the native car popular with farmers in remote areas had two small solid wheels fixed to an axle and was a simple advance from the older slide car or slipe.



‘It was noted that twenty years ago (1780) very few wheel cars were to be met with, except in the neighborhood of principal towns such as Dungannon, Omagh and Strabane, now every farmer of any note is possessed on one, though in many situations it can never be applied so usefully as the common slide car. Frequently the wheel cart is on no more use than that of occasionally going to market or fairs. Slide cars cost 3s 9d to 5s 5d and wheel cars from four to six quineas.
Co. Fermanagh, The greater part of the road pattern was already in place in 1740. The main Enniskillen and Londonderry road originally passed through Tempo and over the mountains to Fintona and on to Omagh. In 1828 a new road was made to avoid the mountains that divided Fermanagh and Tyrone. It is a little longer than the original, but has the advantage of being level. From the Enniskillen-Iervinstown road a trunk route strikes out northeast along a lowland corridor by Ballinamallard, Trillick and Dromore, towards Omagh. This opened communication with Dromore and Trillick and would become the route for the railway in the 1850's.’

‘In 1613 an act was passed in the Irish parliament which made Ireland independent of Britain in the matter of road making. During the century and a half following the original enactment of 1613 the maintenance of roads in Ireland was the responsibility of the parish, operating a system of direct, statutory labor. The Act of 1613 required parishes to maintain those roads within their boundaries which served the principal market towns, using the direct labor resources available in the parish, as decreed and marshaled by directors and overseers, for a MINIMUM of six days within the period from Easter to Midsummer Day. The more substantial parishioners - those occupying a plough land (100 acres) or anyone owning a plough - were required to contribute a cart and horse, and four men. Other householders and tenants had to attend in person and where any of these did not have the tools necessary for road work the justices of the peace could impose a levy of 2 pounds on the parish for their purchase. This continued to be the chief means of repairing the roads of Ireland for one hundred and fifty years (1613-1765) and though amending acts were passed, statutory six day labor remained basically unaltered. Towards the end of the period of parochial interest it became obvious that a method of road repair originating in a subsistence economy was unable to cope with the changing economic circumstances of the mid 18th century. A system of road repair by Presentment gained rapidly in importance as the 18th century progressed and the older form of parochial organization became more and more an anachronism, eventually giving rise to civil unrest throughout the west of Ulster in the 'Oakboy' demonstrations of 1763. In 1765 the long standing system of six day labor was abolished though in the north of Ireland the activities of the parishes in road repair did not end. The Act of 1765 marked the end of the use of direct labor on the repair of major roads and also recognized the construction of new lines of roads, extending across a number of parishes. Direct, unpaid labor was no longer employed, rather, the money collected throughout the parish, from occupiers of land, at a penny or two pence per acre, was now used to employ paid labor under the direction of a wage earning overseer. New roads had to be no less then 14 ft graveled and 30 ft between drains and fences. This freed laborers and tradesmen from the requirement of 6 day statutory labor and put the whole burden on those who owned or leased land. The act of 1765 had laid down that presentments for road works should be levied on the barony within which the work lay, those for bridge works on the county-at-large. In 1805 the presentment expenditures for Co. Tyrone were 17,491 pounds, in 1845 it had grown to 37,343 pounds. The small farmer now paid the Presentment (road) tax covering the parish, barony and county levels, Tithe to the Church of Ireland or Poor Law rates, Small Dues to the Church of Ireland for each Marriage, Baptism and Funeral, whether or not it occurred in their own church, The Hearth tax, The Window tax, Fees to use and sell at Market,charges of the weigh master, Excise tax on Mills, Kilns, distilleries, maltsters… ect, on top of the rent on their land and mandatory days of labor to the lease holder as set forth in their lease.’

‘Roads here were described as being quite good in the 1830s. The main road from Omagh to Enniskillen passed through Fintona, Trillick and Kilskeery and was in good repair, the road from Dromore to Trillick was just being made, while the roads from Trillick to Tempo and Fivemiletown were described as hilly and in great need of repair. There were two public conveyances serving Trillick, the Rover and the Tallyho. Each was drawn by 2 horses, the first a sort of caravan or stage-coach and the second a double outside jaunting car. The conveyances left Omagh each morning at 5.30 a.m., arrived in Trillick around 9 a.m., then on to Enniskillen, arriving back here at 5 p.m. and continuing on to Omagh.’





Taylor & Skinner: Maps of the Roads of Ireland Surveyed 1777



 Part-II & Part III can be found at these links.